Difference between pages "Health care and safety in Bulgaria" and "Health care and safety in Cambodia"

From Peace Corps Wiki
(Difference between pages)
Jump to: navigation, search
m (1 revision imported)
 
 
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Health_care_and_safety_by_country}}
 
{{Health_care_and_safety_by_country}}
  
 +
The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Cambodia maintains a clinic with a full-time medical officer, who takes care of Volunteers’ primary health care needs. Additional medical services, such as testing and basic treatment, are also available in Cambodia at local hospitals. If you become seriously ill, you will be transported either to an American-standard medical facility in the region or to the United States.
  
 +
==Health Issues in Cambodia==
  
The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Bulgaria maintains a health unit with three full-time medical officers (Bulgarian physicians), a medical assistant, and a medical secretary. The medical staff takes care of Volunteers’ primary healthcare needs as a team.  
+
Many of the health issues in Cambodia are similar to issues in other Third-World countries — malaria, dengue fever, lack of clean drinking water, traffic accidents, etc. Outside of Phnom Penh, reputable health care facilities are essentially nonexistent, so it is important to stay healthy to prevent problems.
 +
Although malaria is fairly rare in Cambodia, dengue fever is not. Cambodia also has the highest rate of tuberculosis in the world. Again, staying well rested and hydrated, maintaining good nutrition, and seeking care early will prevent you from becoming seriously ill from these diseases.
  
Additional medical services, such as laboratory testing, imaging diagnostics, and evaluation by specialists are also available in Bulgaria at local facilities. Usually the complete medical evaluation and treatment is done in country by the medical officers. If you become seriously ill or injured, you will be transported either to the closest regional medical facility or to the capital for emergency care and treatment. If your condition requires further evaluation or treatment that is unavailable in Bulgaria, then the Office of Medical Services (OMS), Peace Corps, Washington, D.C., approves medevac to a country with better medical standards in the Europe, Mediterranean, and Asia (EMA) region (regional medevac) or to the United States (most frequently to your home of record). If your condition requires more than 45 days for complete resolution or has a long-term effect on your health, OMS will determine whether you are able to complete your Peace Corps service.  
+
Cambodia has the highest HIV rate in Asia, so the spread of HIV and AIDS is always a concern. You will be trained to avoid high-risk behavior while you are here, and may be called on to transfer that knowledge as you work in your community as well.
  
===Health Issues in Bulgaria===
+
===Helping You Stay Healthy===
  
Bulgaria’s history of heavy industrialization with poor pollution controls has left a legacy, particularly in air pollution.  Although greater attention is being given to reducing industrial emissions, this is occurring gradually, and many of the reductions in pollution so far are due to shutdowns or slowdowns of factories. Much of the air pollution in urban areas comes from auto emissions and the use of soft coal for heating. Volunteers assigned to urban areas may experience moderate to severe air pollution comparable to pollution levels in Los Angeles, Denver, and Chicago. Although most Volunteers do not suffer health effects from Bulgaria’s air pollution, those with severe allergies or asthma will not be placed in heavily polluted areas.  
+
The Peace Corps will provide you with all the necessary inoculations, medications, and information to stay healthy. Upon your arrival in Cambodia, you will receive a medical handbook. At the end of training, you will receive a medical kit with supplies to take care of mild illnesses and first aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter.
  
Additionally, Bulgaria has an older-style nuclear power plant.  This plant, which is vital to the country’s electric power supply, is monitored regularly by the International Atomic Energy Agency, and some of its systems and controls have recently been upgraded. No Volunteers are placed at sites close to the plant.  
+
During pre-service training, you will have access to basic medical supplies through the medical officer. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as the Peace Corps will not order these items during training. Please bring a three-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive.
  
Heavy cigarette smoking takes place in most homes, cafes, and workplaces. Those who are very sensitive to cigarette smoke, or to air pollution in general, should carefully consider whether to accept an assignment in Bulgaria.  
+
You will have physicals at midservice and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, the medical officer in Cambodia will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Cambodia, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care. measures, which will prevent the onset on serious illnesses such as dengue fever:
  
===Helping You Stay Healthy===
+
Always drink boiled, filtered, or bottled water.
 +
* Stay well-rested and eat right
 +
* Eat thoroughly cooked foods
 +
* Use your Peace Corps-provided mosquito net
 +
* Keep your personal living space clean
  
The Peace Corps medical staff will provide you with all the necessary immunizations, medications, and information to stay healthy. Upon your arrival in Bulgaria, you will receive a health manual. Before you go to your host family, you will receive a medical kit with over-the-counter medications and supplies to take care of mild illnesses and first-aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter.  
+
Malaria is endemic in specific geographic areas of Cambodia, and chloroquine-resistant strains predominate some of these areas. Volunteers assigned to areas where malaria is a known risk will be required to take appropriate malaria drug prophylaxis. Malaria prophylaxis will also be required for any Volunteers traveling through endemic areas. Dengue fever, also a mosquito-borne illness, is endemic in all areas of Cambodia. Volunteers will be provided with mosquito nets and an effective drug repellant. Pre-service health training will focus on behavior modification, and personal and environmental practices to avoid exposure to tropical illnesses common in-country.
 
 
During pre-service training, you will have access to over-the-counter medications and medical supplies through the medical officers. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as the Peace Corps will not order these items during training. Please bring a three-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive.  
 
 
 
You will have physicals at mid-service and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, one of the medical officers in Bulgaria will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Bulgaria, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care (medevac).  
 
  
 
===Maintaining Your Health===
 
===Maintaining Your Health===
  
As a Volunteer, you must accept considerable responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The adage, “An ounce of prevention...,” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States.  
+
As a Volunteer, you must accept considerable responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The adage “An ounce of prevention …” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States. The most important of your responsibilities in Cambodia is to take the following preventive measures:
 +
Many illnesses that afflict Volunteers worldwide are entirely preventable if proper food and water precautions are taken. These illnesses include food poisoning, parasitic infections, hepatitis A, dysentery, Guinea worms, tapeworms, and typhoid fever. Your medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Cambodia during pre-service training.
  
Smoking, alcohol consumption, and an unhealthy diet are all serious health issues in Bulgaria. As in most European countries, smoking is common in public and in the workplace.  
+
Abstinence is the only certain choice for preventing infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. You are taking risks if you choose to be sexually active. To lessen risk, use a condom every time you have sex. Whether your partner is a host country citizen, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. You will receive more information from the medical officer about this important issue.
  
Volunteers must be prepared to be in situations in which a staunch nonsmoker might be uncomfortable. Alcohol consumption is commonplace during meals and social occasions so you should be prepared to be offered alcohol at such times, (even in the workplace). Although you might consider the amount people drink somewhat high, public drunkenness is not socially acceptable in any circumstance. Finally, maintaining a heart-healthy diet may be difficult because of the high levels of salt and fat in many Bulgarian dishes.  
+
Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the medical officer.
  
Many diseases that afflict Volunteers worldwide are entirely preventable if proper food and water precautions are taken.  These diseases include food poisoning, parasitic infections, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever. Your medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Bulgaria during pre-service training.
+
It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office or other designated facility for scheduled immunizations, and that you let the medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injuries.
 
 
Abstinence is the only certain choice for prevention of HIV/ AIDS and other STDs. You are taking risks if you choose to be sexually active. To lessen risk, use a condom every time you have sex. Whether your partner is a host country citizen, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. AIDS (SPIN in Bulgarian) is a serious issue in the country, and though condoms are readily available, they are not widely used by Bulgarians. You will receive more information from the medical officer about this important issue.
 
 
 
Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the health unit.
 
 
 
It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office for scheduled immunizations, and that you let your medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injuries.  
 
  
 
===Women’s Health Information===
 
===Women’s Health Information===
  
Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions that require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if the Volunteer remains in country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is extremely rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met.  
+
Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions that require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if the Volunteer remains in-country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met.
  
The Peace Corps medical officer in Bulgaria stocks regular Tampax tampons, and some feminine hygiene products (mostly “OB”-style tampons without applicators) are available for purchase on the local market. If you require special feminine hygiene products, please bring them with you.  
+
If feminine hygiene products are not available for you to purchase on the local market, the Peace Corps medical officer in Cambodia will provide them. If you require a specific product, please bring a three-month supply with you.
  
 
===Your Peace Corps Medical Kit===
 
===Your Peace Corps Medical Kit===
 
+
The Peace Corps medical officer will provide you with a kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that may occur during service. Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office.
The Peace Corps medical officer provides Volunteers with a medical kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that may occur during service. (Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office in Sofia.) In addition to the items listed below, multivitamins, calcium, aspirin, and antifungal powder are available as needed from the medical office.  
 
  
 
====Medical Kit Contents====
 
====Medical Kit Contents====
 
+
Ace bandages<br>
Ace bandage <br>
+
Adhesive tape<br>
Acetaminophen 500&nbsp;mg (Tylenol)  <br>
+
American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook<br>
Adhesive tape  <br>
+
Antacid tablets (Tums)<br>
Antacid tablets <br>
+
Antibiotic ointment (Bacitracin/Neomycin/Polymycin B)<br>
Antibiotic ointment <br>
+
Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens)<br>
Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens) <br>
+
Band-Aids<br>
Band-Aids (assorted sizes) <br>
+
Butterfly closures<br>
Butterfly closures <br>
+
Calamine lotion<br>
Clotrimazole (antifungal cream) <br>
+
Cepacol lozenges<br>
Condoms <br>
+
Condoms<br>
Cough suppressant and sore throat lozenges <br>
+
Dental floss<br>
Dental floss <br>
+
Diphenhydramine HCL 25 mg (Benadryl)<br>
Diphenhydramine HCL 25&nbsp;mg (Benadryl) <br>
+
Insect repellent stick (Cutter’s)<br>
Electrolyte replacement tablets <br>
+
Iodine tablets (for water purification)<br>
Emergency First Aid Pocket Guide  <br>
+
Lip balm (Chapstick)<br>
Eye wash <br>
+
Oral rehydration salts<br>
Hydrocortisone anti-itch cream <br>
+
Oral thermometer (Fahrenheit)<br>
Ibuprofen <br>
+
Pseudoephedrine HCL 30 mg (Sudafed)<br>
Insect repellent  <br>
+
Robitussin-DM lozenges (for cough)<br>
Latex gloves <br>
+
Scissors<br>
Lip balm  <br>
+
Sterile gauze pads<br>
Pepto-Bismol <br>
+
Tetrahydrozaline eyedrops (Visine)<br>
Pseudoephedrine HCL 30&nbsp;mg (Sudafed) <br>
+
Tinactin (antifungal cream)<br>
Scissors <br>
+
Tweezers<br>
Sterile gauze pads <br>
 
Sunscreen (SPF 30) <br>
 
Thermometer (oral disposable) <br>
 
Tweezers <br>
 
Whistle <br>
 
 
 
  
 
===Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist===
 
===Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist===
  
If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.
+
If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.
 
 
If you have screening tests done after you have received your medical clearance from the Peace Corps, you must bring copies of the results with you (which involves signing a form for release of records at your health care facility). If any of the results are abnormal, you must contact the Office of Medical Services.  
 
  
If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.  
+
If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.
  
If you wish to avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office, obtain a copy of your immunization record, and bring it to your pre-departure orientation. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment shortly after you arrive in Bulgaria.  
+
If you wish to avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office to obtain a copy of your immunization record and bring it to your pre-departure orientation. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment, either at your pre-departure orientation or shortly after you arrive in Cambodia. You do not need to begin taking malaria medication prior to departure.
  
Bring a three-month supply of any prescription or over-thecounter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this three-month supply, it will order refills during your service. While awaiting shipment—which can take several months—you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescription medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.  
+
Bring a three-month supply of any prescription or over-the-counter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this three-month supply, it will order refills during your service. While awaiting shipment—which can take several months—you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescribed medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.
  
You should bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician since they will be handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a three-month supply of prescription drugs.  
+
You are encouraged to bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician. This is not a requirement, but they might come in handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a three-month supply of prescription drugs.
  
If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you—a pair and a spare. If a pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination. The Peace Corps discourages you from using contact lenses during your service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or consumables for them.  
+
If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you—a pair and a spare. If a pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination. The Peace Corps discourages you from using contact lenses during your service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or associated solutions unless an ophthalmologist has recommended their use for a specific medical condition and the Peace Corps’ Office of Medical Services has given approval.
  
If you are eligible for Medicare, are over 50 years of age, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in healthcare plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique coverage needs before your departure. The Peace Corps will provide all necessary healthcare from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service healthcare benefits described in the Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age and/or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.  
+
If you are eligible for Medicare, are over 50 years of age, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in health care plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique coverage needs before your departure. The Peace Corps will provide all necessary health care from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service health care benefits described in the Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.
  
===Safety and Security—Our Partnership===
+
==Safety and Security—Our Partnership==
  
Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Property thefts and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems. In addition, more than 84 percent of Volunteers surveyed in the 2004 Peace Corps Volunteer Survey say they would join the Peace Corps again.  
+
Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Property theft and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems.
  
The Peace Corps approaches safety and security as a partnership with you. This Welcome Book contains sections on: Living Conditions and Volunteer Lifestyle; Peace Corps Training; and Your Health Care and Safety. All of these sections include important safety and security information.  
+
Beyond knowing that Peace Corps approaches safety and security as a partnership with you, it might be helpful to see how this partnership works. The Peace Corps has policies, procedures, and training in place to promote your safety. We depend on you to follow those policies and to put into practice what you have learned. An example of how this works in practice—in this case to help manage the risk of burglary—is: Peace Corps assesses the security environment where you will live and work Peace Corps inspects the house where you will live according to established security criteria Peace Corp provides you with resources to take measures such as installing new locks Peace Corps ensures you are welcomed by host country authorities in your new community Peace Corps responds to security concerns that you raise You lock your doors and windows You adopt a lifestyle appropriate to the community where you live You get to know neighbors You decide if purchasing personal articles insurance is appropriate for you You don’t change residences before being authorized by Peace Corps You communicate concerns that you have to Peace Corps staff.
  
The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest and most secure way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify and manage the risks you may encounter.  
+
This Welcome Book contains sections on: Living Conditions and Volunteer Lifestyle; Peace Corps Training; and Your Health Care and Safety that all include important safety and security information to help you understand this partnership. The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify, reduce, and manage the risks you may encounter.
  
 
===Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk===
 
===Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk===
  
There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are within the Volunteer’s control.  
+
There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are within the Volunteer’s control. By far the most common crime that Volunteers experience are thefts. Thefts often occur when volunteers are away from their sites, in crowded locations (such as markets or on public transportation), and when leaving items unattended.
  
Based on information gathered from incident reports worldwide in 2004, the following factors stand out as risk characteristics for assaults. Assaults consist of personal crimes committed against Volunteers, and do not include property crimes (such as vandalism or theft).
+
Before you depart for Cambodia there are several measures you can take to reduce your risk:
 +
*Leave valuable objects in the U.S.
 +
*Leave copies of important documents and account numbers in the U.S. with someone you trust.
 +
*Purchase a hidden money pouch or "dummy" wallet as a decoy
 +
*Purchase personal articles insurance
  
* Location: Most crimes occurred when Volunteers were in public areas (e.g., street, park, beach, public buildings). Specifically, 43 percent of assaults took place when Volunteers were away from their sites.
+
After you arrive in Cambodia, you will receive more detailed information about common crimes, factors that contribute to Volunteer risk, and local strategies to reduce that risk. For example, Volunteers in Cambodia learn to:  
* Time of day: Assaults usually took place on the weekend during the evening between 5:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m.— with most assaults occurring around 1:00 a.m.
 
* Absence of others: Assaults usually occurred when the Volunteer was unaccompanied. In 82 percent of the sexual assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied and in 55 percent of physical assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied.
 
* Relationship to assailant: In most assaults, the Volunteer did not know the assailant.
 
* Consumption of alcohol: Forty percent of all assaults involved alcohol consumption by Volunteers and/or assailants.
 
  
===Summary Strategies to Reduce Risk===
+
*Choose safe routes and times for travel, and travel with someone trusted by the community whenever possible
 +
*Make sure one’s personal appearance is respectful of local customs
 +
*Avoid high-crime areas
 +
*Know the local language to get help in an emergency
 +
*Make friends with local people who are respected in the community
 +
*Limit alcohol consumption
  
Before and during service, your training will address these areas of concern so that you can reduce the risks you face.  
+
As you can see from this list, you have to be willing to work hard and adapt your lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target for crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Cambodia. You can reduce your risk by avoiding situations that place you at risk and by taking precautions. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in large cities; people know each other and generally are less likely to steal from their neighbors. Tourist attractions in large towns are favorite worksites for pickpockets.
  
For example, here are some strategies Volunteers employ:  
+
The following are other security concerns in Cambodia of which you should be aware:
  
<u>Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of theft: </u>
+
One of the most common causes of injury among expatriates in Cambodia is purse snatchings. Men on motorbikes ride by, often with another person passing at the same time as a distraction, and grab your bag off your shoulder, often pulling you into the roadway. Never carry anything in a shoulder bag that you cannot afford to lose. Some victims have been pulled off the backs of motorcycles when a passing moto grabbed their bag. This crime pattern is one key reason why riding on the back of motos is strictly forbidden.
  
* Know the environment and choose safe routes/times for travel
+
Another serious concern is that there is little or no law enforcement in Cambodia. Often rich or influential people, as well as their children, can commit serious crimes and get away with it just by bribing the police. For this reason, it is extremely important not to be confrontational if you are faced with men who are angry or drunk. Aggressive behavior or resistance could result in a gun in your face. Avoid nightclubs frequented by these rich men and their bodyguards, especially the "Heart of Darkness" nightclub in Phnom Penh. This club is off-limits to American Peace Corps employees as well as U.S. employees of the American embassy in Phnom Penh.
* Avoid high-crime areas per Peace Corps guidance
 
* Know the vocabulary to get help in an emergency
 
* Carry valuables in different pockets/places
 
* Carry a "dummy" wallet as a decoy Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of burglary:
 
* Live with a local family or on a family compound
 
* Put strong locks on doors and keep valuables in a lock box or trunk
 
* Leave irreplaceable objects at home in the U.S.  
 
* Follow Peace Corps guidelines on maintaining home security Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of assault:
 
* Make local friends
 
* Make sure your appearance is respectful of local customs; don’t draw negative attention to yourself by wearing inappropriate clothing
 
* Get to know local officials, police, and neighbors
 
* Travel with someone whenever possible
 
* Avoid known high crime areas
 
* Limit alcohol consumption
 
  
===Support from Staff===
+
Although land mines have received much publicity, and are certainly a significant issue in some rural areas of Cambodia, Volunteers are serving in larger towns and are unlikely to visit affected areas during their service.
  
In March 2003, the Peace Corps created the Office of Safety and Security with its mission to “foster improved communication, coordination, oversight, and accountability of all Peace Corps’ safety and security efforts.” The new office is led by an Associate Director for Safety and Security who reports to the Peace Corps Director and includes the following divisions: Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security; Information and Personnel Security; Emergency Preparedness, Plans, Training and Exercise; and Crime Statistics and Analysis.  
+
Volunteers tend to attract a lot of attention both in large cities and at their sites, but they are more likely to receive negative attention in highly populated centers, and away from their support network —friends and colleagues—who look out for them. While whistles and exclamations may be fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, abide by local cultural norms, and respond according to the training you will receive.
  
The major responsibilities of the Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security Division are to coordinate the office’s overseas operations and direct the Peace Corps’ safety and security officers who are located in various regions around the world that have Peace Corps programs. The safety and security officers conduct security assessments; review safety trainings; train trainers and managers; train Volunteer safety wardens, local guards, and staff; develop security incident response procedures; and provide crisis management support.  
+
===Staying Safe: Don’t Be a Target for Crime===
 +
You must be prepared to take on a large degree of responsibility for your own safety. You can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your home is secure, and develop relationships in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime. While the factors that contribute to your risk in Cambodia may be different, in many ways you can better assure your safety by doing what you would do if you moved to a new city anywhere: Be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Cambodia will require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.
  
If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure that the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed.  
+
===Support from Staff===
 
+
If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed. After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff members provide support by reassessing the Volunteer’s worksite and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed. In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.
After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff provides support by reassessing the Volunteer’s work site and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed. In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.
 
 
 
The country-specific data chart below shows the incidence rates and the average number of incidents of the major types of safety incidents reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/trainees in Bulgaria as compared to all other Europe, Mediterranean and Asia (EMA) region programs as a whole, from 2001–2005. It is presented to you in a somewhat technical manner for statistical accuracy.  
 
  
To fully appreciate the collected data below, an explanation of the graph is provided as follows:
+
===Crime Data for Cambodia===
  
The incidence rate for each type of crime is the number of crime events relative to the Volunteer/trainee population.  It is expressed on the chart as a ratio of crime to Volunteer and trainee years (or V/T years, which is a measure of 12 full months of V/T service) to allow for a statistically valid way to compare crime data across countries. An “incident” is a specific offense, per Peace Corps' classification of offenses, and may involve one or more Volunteer/trainee victims. For example, if two Volunteers are robbed at the same time and place, this is classified as one robbery incident.
+
The country-specific data chart below shows the average annual rates of major types of crimes reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/trainees in Cambodia compared to all other Europe, Mediterranean and Asia programs as a whole. It can be understood as an approximation of the number of reported incidents per 100 Volunteers in a year2.
 
 
The chart is separated into eight crime categories. These include vandalism (malicious defacement or damage of property); theft (taking without force or illegal entry); burglary (forcible entry of a residence); robbery (taking something by force); minor physical assault (attacking without a weapon with minor injuries); minor sexual assault (fondling, groping, etc.); aggravated assault (attacking with a weapon, and/or without a weapon when serious injury results); and rape (sexual intercourse without consent).
 
 
 
When anticipating Peace Corps Volunteer service, you should review all of the safety and security information provided to you, including the strategies to reduce risk. Throughout your training and Volunteer service, you will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas including safety and security. Once in-country, use the tools and information shared with you to remain as safe and secure as possible.
 
 
 
===What if you become a victim of a violent crime?===
 
 
 
Few Peace Corps Volunteers are victims of violent crimes. The Peace Corps will give you information and training in how to be safe. But, just as in the U.S., crime happens, and Volunteers can become victims. When this happens, the investigative team of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is charged with helping pursue prosecution of those who perpetrate a violent crime against a Volunteer. If you become a victim of a violent crime, the decision to prosecute or not to prosecute is entirely yours, and one of the tasks of the OIG is to make sure that you are fully informed of your options and help you through the process and procedures involved in going forward with prosecution should you wish to do so. If you decide to prosecute, we are here to assist you in every way we can.
 
 
 
Crimes that occur overseas, of course, are investigated and prosecuted by local authorities in local courts. Our role is to coordinate the investigation and evidence collection with the regional security officers (RSOs) at the U.S. embassy, local police, and local prosecutors and others to ensure that your rights are protected to the fullest extent possible under the laws of the country. OIG investigative staff has extensive experience in criminal investigation, in working sensitively with victims, and as advocates for victims. We also, may, in certain limited circumstances, arrange for the retention of a local lawyer to assist the local public prosecutor in making the case against the individual who perpetrated the violent crime.  
 
 
 
If you do become a victim of a violent crime, first, make sure you are in a safe place and with people you trust and second, contact the country director or the Peace Corps medical officer. Immediate reporting is important to the preservation of evidence and the chances of apprehending the suspect.  Country directors and medical officers are required to report all violent crimes to the Inspector General and the RSO. This information is protected from unauthorized further disclosure by the Privacy Act. Reporting the crime also helps prevent your further victimization and protects your fellow Volunteers.
 
 
 
In conjunction with the RSO, the OIG does a preliminary investigation of all violent crimes against Volunteers regardless of whether the crime has been reported to local authorities or of the decision you may ultimately make to prosecute. If you are a victim of a crime, our staff will work with you through final disposition of the case. OIG staff is available 24 hours-aday, 7 days-a-week. We may be contacted through our 24-hour
 
 
 
violent crime hotline via telephone at 202.692.2911, or by e-mail at violentcrimehotline@peacecorps.gov.
 
 
 
===Security Issues in Bulgaria===
 
 
 
When it comes to your safety and security in the Peace Corps, you have to be willing to adapt your behavior and lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target of crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Bulgaria. You can reduce your risk by avoiding situations that make you feel uncomfortable and by taking precautions. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in the large cities; people know each other and generally will not steal from their neighbors. But because you are a foreigner and will probably be considered rich, your home may be more prone to break-ins than those of your neighbors. Fortunately, violent crime is rare.
 
 
 
Although Bulgaria is a relatively safe place to live, it is not without petty crimes and assaults. Pick pocketing occurs on some forms of public transportation, especially in Sofia. If you follow a few simple guidelines, you will reduce most risks.
 
 
 
Carry valuables close to your body or under your clothing.  Do not keep money in outside pockets of backpacks, in coat pockets, or in fanny packs. Undergarment money pouches, the kind that hang around your neck and stay hidden under your shirt or inside your coat, are highly recommended. Never keep your backpack on your back while on public transportation; place your arm across the zippers of your backpack and hold it in front of you. Hold small bags tightly under your arm.  While in restaurants, place your pack or bag in your lap or next to you, not on the floor.
 
 
 
Be wary of overly friendly strangers, particularly near bus and train stations. Do not accept food or drink from persons you do not know. If you choose to accept an offer to share refreshments, go with the person to purchase the food and drink. This will prevent someone from attempting to drug you and rob you (which has been known to happen on occasion) and avoid the danger of an adverse drug reaction.
 
 
 
Avoid dangerous places. Make inquiries before you wander off somewhere alone. Develop local friends and contacts; they are the best source of information. Try to stay out of underpasses, and do not linger in train stations. Do not carry any valuables or important documents in your backpack. Always secure your valuables while you are away from home: Lock your apartment and bicycle (if you have one). Use safety deposit boxes in hotels, and consider purchasing personal property insurance so you can replace valuable items if a theft does occur.
 
 
 
Women should not walk alone after dark. Suggestive comments to women from men in the streets are common. While annoying, this is, unfortunately, part of Bulgarian culture. You may have to adjust some recreational activities to daytime hours.
 
 
 
===Staying Safe: Don’t Be a Target for Crime===
 
  
You must be prepared to take on a large degree of responsibility for your own safety. Only you can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your house is secure, and develop relationships in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime.  In coming to Bulgaria, do what you would do if you moved to a new city in the United States: Be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Bulgaria may require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.  
+
Few Peace Corps Volunteers are victims of serious crimes and crimes that do occur overseas are
 +
investigated and prosecuted by local authorities through the local courts system. If you are the victim
 +
of a crime, you will decide if you wish to pursue prosecution. If you decide to prosecute, Peace Corps
 +
will be there to assist you. One of our tasks is to ensure you are fully informed of your options and
 +
understand how the local legal process works. Peace Corps will help you ensure your rights are
 +
protected to the fullest extent possible under the laws of the country.
  
Volunteers attract a lot of attention both in large cities and at their sites, but they are likely to receive more negative attention in highly populated centers than at their sites, where “family,” friends, and colleagues look out for them. While whistles and exclamations are fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, avoid eye contact, and do not respond to unwanted attention.  
+
If you are the victim of a serious crime, you will learn how to get to a safe location as quickly as
 +
possible and contact your Peace Corps office. It’s important that you notify Peace Corps as soon as you
 +
can so Peace Corps can provide you with the help you need.
  
===Preparing for the Unexpected: Safety Training and Volunteer Support in Bulgaria===
+
===Volunteer Safety Support in Cambodia===
  
The Peace Corps’ approach to safety is a five-pronged plan to help you stay safe during your two-year service and includes the following: information sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed emergency action plan, and protocols for addressing safety and security incidents. Bulgaria’s in-country safety program is outlined below.  
+
The Peace Corps’ approach to safety is a five-pronged plan to help you stay safe during your service
 +
and includes the following: information sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed
 +
emergency action plan, and protocols for addressing safety and security incidents. Cambodia’s incountry
 +
safety program is outlined below.
  
The Peace Corps/Bulgaria office will keep you informed of any issues that may impact Volunteer safety through information sharing. Regular updates will be provided in Volunteer newsletters and in memoranda from the country director. In the event of a critical situation or emergency, you will be contacted through the emergency communication network.  
+
The Peace Corps/Cambodia office will keep you informed of any issues that may impact Volunteer
 +
safety through information sharing. Regular updates will be provided in Volunteer newsletters and in
 +
memorandums from the country director. In the event of a critical situation or emergency, you will be
 +
contacted through the emergency communication network. An important component of the capacity of
 +
the Peace Corps to keep you informed is your buy-in to the partnership concept with the Peace Corps
 +
staff. It is expected that you will do your part in ensuring that Peace Corps staff members are kept
 +
apprised of your movements in-country so that they are capable of informing you.
  
Volunteer training will include sessions to prepare you for specific safety and security issues in Bulgaria. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risk in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout service and is integrated into the language, cross-cultural, health, and other components of training.  
+
Volunteer training will include sessions on specific safety and security issues in Cambodia. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risk in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout service and is integrated into the language, cross-cultural aspects, health, and other components of training. You will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas, including safety and security, as a condition of service.
  
Certain site selection criteria are used to determine safe housing for Volunteers before their arrival. The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to help prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to establish expectations of their respective roles in supporting the Volunteer. Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure housing and work sites. Site selection is based in part on any relevant site history; reasonable access to medical, banking, postal, and other essential services per local standards; availability of communications, transportation, and markets (per local standards); housing options and living arrangements; and other Volunteer support needs.  
+
Certain site selection criteria are used to determine safe housing for Volunteers before their arrival. The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to help prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to establish expectations of their respective roles in supporting the Volunteer. Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure housing and worksites. Site selection is based, in part, on any relevant site history; access to medical, banking, postal, and other essential services; availability of communications, transportation, and markets; different housing options and living arrangements; and other Volunteer support needs.
  
You will also learn about Peace Corps/Bulgaria’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of natural or man-made emergency situations or to handle individual emergencies. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house. If there is a threat to your safety, you will receive specific instructions through a Volunteer warden or will be asked to gather in small groups at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.  
+
You will also learn about Peace Corps/Cambodia’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of civil or political unrest or a natural disaster. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house. If there is a security threat, you will gather with other Volunteers in Cambodia at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.
  
Finally, in order for the Peace Corps to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps medical officer. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.  
+
Finally, in order for the Peace Corps to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps office. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.
  
[[Category:Bulgaria]]
+
See also: [[Cambodia]]
[[Category:Health and Safety]]
 

Revision as of 19:25, 23 July 2010


Health care and safety in [[{{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer and trainee. Medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative approach to disease.

Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk.

  • [[Packing list for {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
  • [[Training in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
  • [[Living conditions and volunteer lifestyles in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
  • [[Health care and safety in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
  • [[Diversity and cross-cultural issues in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
  • [[FAQs about Peace Corps in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
  • [[History of the Peace Corps in {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |6}} {{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |7}}]]
|6}} [[Image:Flag_of_{{#explode:Health care and safety in Cambodia| |5}}.svg|50px|none]]}}

See also:
Pre-Departure Checklist
Staging Timeline
The Health of the Volunteer The Safety of the Volunteer

The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Cambodia maintains a clinic with a full-time medical officer, who takes care of Volunteers’ primary health care needs. Additional medical services, such as testing and basic treatment, are also available in Cambodia at local hospitals. If you become seriously ill, you will be transported either to an American-standard medical facility in the region or to the United States.

Health Issues in Cambodia

Many of the health issues in Cambodia are similar to issues in other Third-World countries — malaria, dengue fever, lack of clean drinking water, traffic accidents, etc. Outside of Phnom Penh, reputable health care facilities are essentially nonexistent, so it is important to stay healthy to prevent problems. Although malaria is fairly rare in Cambodia, dengue fever is not. Cambodia also has the highest rate of tuberculosis in the world. Again, staying well rested and hydrated, maintaining good nutrition, and seeking care early will prevent you from becoming seriously ill from these diseases.

Cambodia has the highest HIV rate in Asia, so the spread of HIV and AIDS is always a concern. You will be trained to avoid high-risk behavior while you are here, and may be called on to transfer that knowledge as you work in your community as well.

Helping You Stay Healthy

The Peace Corps will provide you with all the necessary inoculations, medications, and information to stay healthy. Upon your arrival in Cambodia, you will receive a medical handbook. At the end of training, you will receive a medical kit with supplies to take care of mild illnesses and first aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter.

During pre-service training, you will have access to basic medical supplies through the medical officer. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as the Peace Corps will not order these items during training. Please bring a three-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive.

You will have physicals at midservice and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, the medical officer in Cambodia will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Cambodia, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care. measures, which will prevent the onset on serious illnesses such as dengue fever:

Always drink boiled, filtered, or bottled water.

  • Stay well-rested and eat right
  • Eat thoroughly cooked foods
  • Use your Peace Corps-provided mosquito net
  • Keep your personal living space clean

Malaria is endemic in specific geographic areas of Cambodia, and chloroquine-resistant strains predominate some of these areas. Volunteers assigned to areas where malaria is a known risk will be required to take appropriate malaria drug prophylaxis. Malaria prophylaxis will also be required for any Volunteers traveling through endemic areas. Dengue fever, also a mosquito-borne illness, is endemic in all areas of Cambodia. Volunteers will be provided with mosquito nets and an effective drug repellant. Pre-service health training will focus on behavior modification, and personal and environmental practices to avoid exposure to tropical illnesses common in-country.

Maintaining Your Health

As a Volunteer, you must accept considerable responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The adage “An ounce of prevention …” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States. The most important of your responsibilities in Cambodia is to take the following preventive measures: Many illnesses that afflict Volunteers worldwide are entirely preventable if proper food and water precautions are taken. These illnesses include food poisoning, parasitic infections, hepatitis A, dysentery, Guinea worms, tapeworms, and typhoid fever. Your medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Cambodia during pre-service training.

Abstinence is the only certain choice for preventing infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. You are taking risks if you choose to be sexually active. To lessen risk, use a condom every time you have sex. Whether your partner is a host country citizen, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. You will receive more information from the medical officer about this important issue.

Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the medical officer.

It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office or other designated facility for scheduled immunizations, and that you let the medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injuries.

Women’s Health Information

Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions that require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if the Volunteer remains in-country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met.

If feminine hygiene products are not available for you to purchase on the local market, the Peace Corps medical officer in Cambodia will provide them. If you require a specific product, please bring a three-month supply with you.

Your Peace Corps Medical Kit

The Peace Corps medical officer will provide you with a kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that may occur during service. Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office.

Medical Kit Contents

Ace bandages
Adhesive tape
American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook
Antacid tablets (Tums)
Antibiotic ointment (Bacitracin/Neomycin/Polymycin B)
Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens)
Band-Aids
Butterfly closures
Calamine lotion
Cepacol lozenges
Condoms
Dental floss
Diphenhydramine HCL 25 mg (Benadryl)
Insect repellent stick (Cutter’s)
Iodine tablets (for water purification)
Lip balm (Chapstick)
Oral rehydration salts
Oral thermometer (Fahrenheit)
Pseudoephedrine HCL 30 mg (Sudafed)
Robitussin-DM lozenges (for cough)
Scissors
Sterile gauze pads
Tetrahydrozaline eyedrops (Visine)
Tinactin (antifungal cream)
Tweezers

Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist

If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.

If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.

If you wish to avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office to obtain a copy of your immunization record and bring it to your pre-departure orientation. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment, either at your pre-departure orientation or shortly after you arrive in Cambodia. You do not need to begin taking malaria medication prior to departure.

Bring a three-month supply of any prescription or over-the-counter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this three-month supply, it will order refills during your service. While awaiting shipment—which can take several months—you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescribed medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.

You are encouraged to bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician. This is not a requirement, but they might come in handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a three-month supply of prescription drugs.

If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you—a pair and a spare. If a pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination. The Peace Corps discourages you from using contact lenses during your service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or associated solutions unless an ophthalmologist has recommended their use for a specific medical condition and the Peace Corps’ Office of Medical Services has given approval.

If you are eligible for Medicare, are over 50 years of age, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in health care plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique coverage needs before your departure. The Peace Corps will provide all necessary health care from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service health care benefits described in the Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.

Safety and Security—Our Partnership

Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Property theft and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems.

Beyond knowing that Peace Corps approaches safety and security as a partnership with you, it might be helpful to see how this partnership works. The Peace Corps has policies, procedures, and training in place to promote your safety. We depend on you to follow those policies and to put into practice what you have learned. An example of how this works in practice—in this case to help manage the risk of burglary—is: Peace Corps assesses the security environment where you will live and work Peace Corps inspects the house where you will live according to established security criteria Peace Corp provides you with resources to take measures such as installing new locks Peace Corps ensures you are welcomed by host country authorities in your new community Peace Corps responds to security concerns that you raise You lock your doors and windows You adopt a lifestyle appropriate to the community where you live You get to know neighbors You decide if purchasing personal articles insurance is appropriate for you You don’t change residences before being authorized by Peace Corps You communicate concerns that you have to Peace Corps staff.

This Welcome Book contains sections on: Living Conditions and Volunteer Lifestyle; Peace Corps Training; and Your Health Care and Safety that all include important safety and security information to help you understand this partnership. The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify, reduce, and manage the risks you may encounter.

Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk

There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are within the Volunteer’s control. By far the most common crime that Volunteers experience are thefts. Thefts often occur when volunteers are away from their sites, in crowded locations (such as markets or on public transportation), and when leaving items unattended.

Before you depart for Cambodia there are several measures you can take to reduce your risk:

  • Leave valuable objects in the U.S.
  • Leave copies of important documents and account numbers in the U.S. with someone you trust.
  • Purchase a hidden money pouch or "dummy" wallet as a decoy
  • Purchase personal articles insurance

After you arrive in Cambodia, you will receive more detailed information about common crimes, factors that contribute to Volunteer risk, and local strategies to reduce that risk. For example, Volunteers in Cambodia learn to:

  • Choose safe routes and times for travel, and travel with someone trusted by the community whenever possible
  • Make sure one’s personal appearance is respectful of local customs
  • Avoid high-crime areas
  • Know the local language to get help in an emergency
  • Make friends with local people who are respected in the community
  • Limit alcohol consumption

As you can see from this list, you have to be willing to work hard and adapt your lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target for crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Cambodia. You can reduce your risk by avoiding situations that place you at risk and by taking precautions. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in large cities; people know each other and generally are less likely to steal from their neighbors. Tourist attractions in large towns are favorite worksites for pickpockets.

The following are other security concerns in Cambodia of which you should be aware:

One of the most common causes of injury among expatriates in Cambodia is purse snatchings. Men on motorbikes ride by, often with another person passing at the same time as a distraction, and grab your bag off your shoulder, often pulling you into the roadway. Never carry anything in a shoulder bag that you cannot afford to lose. Some victims have been pulled off the backs of motorcycles when a passing moto grabbed their bag. This crime pattern is one key reason why riding on the back of motos is strictly forbidden.

Another serious concern is that there is little or no law enforcement in Cambodia. Often rich or influential people, as well as their children, can commit serious crimes and get away with it just by bribing the police. For this reason, it is extremely important not to be confrontational if you are faced with men who are angry or drunk. Aggressive behavior or resistance could result in a gun in your face. Avoid nightclubs frequented by these rich men and their bodyguards, especially the "Heart of Darkness" nightclub in Phnom Penh. This club is off-limits to American Peace Corps employees as well as U.S. employees of the American embassy in Phnom Penh.

Although land mines have received much publicity, and are certainly a significant issue in some rural areas of Cambodia, Volunteers are serving in larger towns and are unlikely to visit affected areas during their service.

Volunteers tend to attract a lot of attention both in large cities and at their sites, but they are more likely to receive negative attention in highly populated centers, and away from their support network —friends and colleagues—who look out for them. While whistles and exclamations may be fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, abide by local cultural norms, and respond according to the training you will receive.

Staying Safe: Don’t Be a Target for Crime

You must be prepared to take on a large degree of responsibility for your own safety. You can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your home is secure, and develop relationships in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime. While the factors that contribute to your risk in Cambodia may be different, in many ways you can better assure your safety by doing what you would do if you moved to a new city anywhere: Be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Cambodia will require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.

Support from Staff

If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed. After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff members provide support by reassessing the Volunteer’s worksite and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed. In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.

Crime Data for Cambodia

The country-specific data chart below shows the average annual rates of major types of crimes reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/trainees in Cambodia compared to all other Europe, Mediterranean and Asia programs as a whole. It can be understood as an approximation of the number of reported incidents per 100 Volunteers in a year2.

Few Peace Corps Volunteers are victims of serious crimes and crimes that do occur overseas are investigated and prosecuted by local authorities through the local courts system. If you are the victim of a crime, you will decide if you wish to pursue prosecution. If you decide to prosecute, Peace Corps will be there to assist you. One of our tasks is to ensure you are fully informed of your options and understand how the local legal process works. Peace Corps will help you ensure your rights are protected to the fullest extent possible under the laws of the country.

If you are the victim of a serious crime, you will learn how to get to a safe location as quickly as possible and contact your Peace Corps office. It’s important that you notify Peace Corps as soon as you can so Peace Corps can provide you with the help you need.

Volunteer Safety Support in Cambodia

The Peace Corps’ approach to safety is a five-pronged plan to help you stay safe during your service and includes the following: information sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed emergency action plan, and protocols for addressing safety and security incidents. Cambodia’s incountry safety program is outlined below.

The Peace Corps/Cambodia office will keep you informed of any issues that may impact Volunteer safety through information sharing. Regular updates will be provided in Volunteer newsletters and in memorandums from the country director. In the event of a critical situation or emergency, you will be contacted through the emergency communication network. An important component of the capacity of the Peace Corps to keep you informed is your buy-in to the partnership concept with the Peace Corps staff. It is expected that you will do your part in ensuring that Peace Corps staff members are kept apprised of your movements in-country so that they are capable of informing you.

Volunteer training will include sessions on specific safety and security issues in Cambodia. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risk in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout service and is integrated into the language, cross-cultural aspects, health, and other components of training. You will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas, including safety and security, as a condition of service.

Certain site selection criteria are used to determine safe housing for Volunteers before their arrival. The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to help prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to establish expectations of their respective roles in supporting the Volunteer. Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure housing and worksites. Site selection is based, in part, on any relevant site history; access to medical, banking, postal, and other essential services; availability of communications, transportation, and markets; different housing options and living arrangements; and other Volunteer support needs.

You will also learn about Peace Corps/Cambodia’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of civil or political unrest or a natural disaster. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house. If there is a security threat, you will gather with other Volunteers in Cambodia at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.

Finally, in order for the Peace Corps to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps office. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.

See also: Cambodia