Difference between pages "History of the Peace Corps in Tanzania" and "History of the Peace Corps in The Gambia"

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The first Peace Corps Volunteers arrived in The Gambia at the invitation of the Gambian government in September 1967.  They worked in skilled trades as mechanics, engineers, and carpenters, and they organized village cooperatives.
  
 +
Two years later, another group of Volunteers arrived to work in education. Since that time, education has been a principal focus of Peace Corps activities in The Gambia. Education Volunteers have organized resource centers for primary schools; planned and launched libraries; developed teaching curricula and materials for classes in math, science, English, and environmental and forestry conservation; provided training for teachers in these subjects; and set up computer laboratories and taught information technology (IT) skills.  Environment Volunteers have helped improve vegetable and fruit tree production in school gardens and orchards; helped control freshwater runoff and saltwater intrusion; constructed handmade dams that have doubled rice production; and assisted in managing seven Department of Forestry divisional nurseries. Health Volunteers work to prevent common diseases including malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS. They also promote maternal and child health through education and community development.
  
 +
==Future of Peace Corps Programming in The Gambia==
  
 +
Peace Corps/The Gambia currently works in three development sectors: education, the environment, and health.
  
 +
Regardless of their sector-specific assignments, Volunteers working in The Gambia work with colleagues in other sectors and in secondary activities such as HIV/AIDS education, youth and gender development, and girls’ education. Volunteers become an integral part of their local communities and have the opportunity to explain U.S. culture to their host families, villages, counterparts, and supervisors. This cross-cultural understanding is as essential to the Peace Corps’ mission as the technical assistance Volunteers provide.
  
Peace Corps Volunteers first arrived in Tanzania (then called Tanganyika) in 1962. Since then, approximately 2,000 Volunteers have served in Tanzania, working in education, health, the environment, and agriculture. In the early years of Peace Corps/Tanzania, most Volunteers focused on education.  
+
The Peace Corps has been involved in The Gambia’s education sector since 1969. A significant reason for the project’s success has been its ability to respond to the changing needs of the sector. In addition to teaching students, education Volunteers have assisted in the development of curricula at all educational levels. They have worked in areas ranging from vocational education to teacher training in primary school education and secondary school math and science to computer operation and troubleshooting. In 1992, Peace Corps/The Gambia restructured its relationship with the Department of State for Education to more closely align with The Gambia’s education master plan. This plan aims to improve access to quality education for all Gambian students, especially girls.  
  
As a result of political disagreements over the Vietnam War and former President Julius Nyerere’s philosophy of self-reliance, the Peace Corps withdrew from Tanzania from 1969 to 1979. The Peace Corps had another, shorter period of interrupted service in 1991 and 1992 because of tensions and security concerns related to the Persian Gulf War. In 1992, a thorough evaluation of the Peace Corps’ development priorities in Tanzania led to a decision to focus efforts on revitalizing the program in secondary education. In 1996 Peace Corps/Tanzania launched an environment project, and in 2000 it initiated a school health education project. Today, Peace Corps/Tanzania has about 130 Volunteers; half of them serve in the education project, 30 percent in the environment project, and 20 percent in the health education project.  
+
About 30 Volunteers work in the education project. They conduct training for teachers at the regional and primary school levels. They also help build the capacity of their Gambian counterparts to produce and promote the use of teaching aids and student-centered learning activities, and they help set up and manage resource centers and libraries.  
  
 +
The rapid expansion in the number of new secondary schools, the shortage of qualified secondary school teachers (especially in math and science), the high rate of computer illiteracy, and limited IT facilities continue to be barriers to achievement of The Gambia’s development goals. To help meet these challenges, some Volunteers are providing pre-service training for teachers at The Gambia College, and some are teaching math and science at the university.
  
===History and Future of Peace Corps Programming in Tanzania. ===
+
The Gambia is one of Africa’s smallest and least developed countries. Over the past 40 years, rapid population growth, low rainfall, unsustainable agricultural practices, exploitation of the natural resource base, and a lack of environmental awareness have caused a dramatic decline in agricultural productivity and biodiversity along with increased environmental degradation.  
  
As a relatively small player in a country of almost 36 million people, Peace Corps/Tanzania recognizes the need for a strategic vision that focuses on niche areas, where a small number of dedicated Volunteers can make a significant difference. Our projects are in areas where we can play a catalytic or model-building role while meeting Tanzania’s real, identified needs. Thus, our projects in education, health, and the environment have the potential to make a real difference in Tanzania. Our focus on youth, particularly in the areas of environmental education, empowerment of girls, and HIV/AIDS prevention and care, serves our overall “country theme” as it empowers young people to take greater control of their lives and to be responsible, active members of their communities.  
+
The project plan for the environment sector was developed in 1994 with the merger of the agriculture and forestry projects into a new agroforestry extension project plan. In 1997, that project plan was revised to add community forestry and environmental education. The project improves the quality of life of local communities by promoting protection of the environment and adoption of sustainable practices for managing natural resources. The goals are to implement practices that enable community members to manage their natural resource base (fields and forests) sustainably; to train educators working with students to increase environmental awareness and implement activities to protect the environment; and to increase the income and improve the nutrition of rural women by educating them about horticultural techniques and nutritional practices. Volunteers use formal and nonformal education tools to promote community forestry and improved horticultural and agricultural techniques in rural communities. Environment Volunteers are also engaged in poultry production, other community-based initiatives, such as beekeeping, and income generation projects for women.  
  
The education project continues to play a critical role in math and science education by serving students and teachers in schools, particularly girls’ schools and rural schools. We encourage out-of-classroom initiatives by providing resources and training opportunities for youth leadership and activism by employing peer education models. In January 2003, Peace Corps/Tanzania and the Ministry of Education and Culture initiated a pilot program focusing on computer education. To expand information and communication technology (ICT) in Tanzania, four ICT Volunteers assigned to the education sector began work in 2004.  
+
About 35 Volunteers currently serve in the environment project, working in small rural communities in environmentally threatened and economically deprived areas of the country. Volunteers are attached to the Department of Forestry and work with community members such as government extensionists, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), teachers (for formal environmental education and school gardening), local farmers, and youth and women’s groups.  
  
The environment project addresses community development with activities such as animal raising, tree planting, and changing nonsustainable agricultural practices. It increasingly focuses on youth—the farmers of tomorrow—through educational activities for primary school students and out-ofschool youth. Volunteers in this project work with other Peace Corps sectors to promote girls’ empowerment and to address health concerns, including HIV/AIDS, at the grass-roots level.  
+
About 30 Volunteers are currently serving in the health project. They help develop primary health care, which The Gambia has adopted as its strategy for national health development. Volunteer assignments include helping Gambians plan and deliver health education, organizing in-service training for health workers, and designing teaching aids for health education. Volunteers are also involved in community development activities that promote health and they help implement activities that address identified health needs. Most health Volunteers are assigned to rural areas. Volunteers also work in the capital with the National Nutrition Agency, the National AIDS Secretariat, and The Gambia Family Planning Association. The rest work with divisional health offices, health centers and dispensaries, and village health services.
 
 
Volunteers in the health education project work with partner agencies and government structures to reach students, out-of–school youth, and teachers. The work focuses on HIV/AIDS prevention and awareness but other basic health issues are also addressed. Volunteers engage in direct work with students, but also work with teachers to enable them to confidently teach topics such as sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and life skills that are part of the national curriculum. Volunteers may also participate in health education activities at health centers and in their communities.  
 
 
 
Recognizing the seriousness of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania, all Peace Corps/Tanzania Volunteers receive training in strategies for HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention and are encouraged to be involved in these activities in their communities. In 2006, Peace Corps/Tanzania is moving into the area of care by providing nutrition education to those hardest hit by the pandemic—people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) and orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs). Health and environment Volunteers will be trained in establishing home gardens and effective permaculture so they can show PLWHAS and OVCS how to getter better nutrition from food produced through these activities.
 
 
 
The AIDS pandemic strikes across all social strata in many Peace Corps countries. The loss of teachers has crippled education systems, while illness and disability drains family income and forces governments and donors to redirect limited resources from other priorities. The fear and uncertainty AIDS causes has led to increased domestic violence and stigmatizing of people living with HIV/AIDS, isolating them from friends and family and cutting them off from economic opportunities.
 
 
 
As a Peace Corps Volunteer, you will confront these issues on a very personal level. It is important to be aware of the high emotional toll that disease, death, and violence can have on Volunteers. As you strive to integrate into your community, you will develop relationships with local people who might die during your service. Because of the AIDS pandemic, some volunteers will be regularly meeting with HIV positive people and working with training staff, office staff and host family members living with AIDS. Volunteers need to prepare themselves to embrace these relationships in a sensitive and positive manner. Likewise, malaria and malnutrition, motor vehicle accidents and other unintentional injuries, domestic violence and corporal punishment are problems a Volunteer may confront. You will need to anticipate these situations and utilize supportive resources available throughout your training and service to maintain your own emotional strength, so that you can continue to be of service to your community.
 
 
 
===Assignment History===
 
  
 +
==Assignment History in The Gambia==
  
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0"
 
{| border="1" cellpadding="5" cellspacing="0"
Line 39: Line 35:
 
| align="center" | '''[[Sector]]''' || '''[[Assignment]]''' || '''[[Beg. Yr]]''' || '''[[End. Yr]]'''
 
| align="center" | '''[[Sector]]''' || '''[[Assignment]]''' || '''[[Beg. Yr]]''' || '''[[End. Yr]]'''
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="8" align="center"| '''[[Agriculture]]'''
+
| rowspan="5" align="center"| '''[[Agriculture]]'''
 
| [[Ag Economics]]
 
| [[Ag Economics]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1984]]
| [[1989]]
 
|-
 
| [[Ag Education]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
 
| [[1992]]
 
| [[1992]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Ag Extension]]
 
| [[Ag Extension]]
| [[1966]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[2007]]
+
| [[2008]]
|-
 
| [[Animal Husband]]
 
| [[1997]]
 
| [[2007]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Animal Husband Lg]]
 
| [[Animal Husband Lg]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1979]]
| [[1997]]
+
| [[1982]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Crop Extension]]
+
| [[Apiculture]]
| [[1961]]
+
| [[1982]]
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
| [[Farm Mechanics]]
 
| [[1984]]
 
 
| [[1985]]
 
| [[1985]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Fisheries Marine]]
+
| [[Crop Extension]]
| [[1987]]
+
| [[1967]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1994]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="4" align="center"| '''[[Business]]'''
+
| rowspan="5" align="center"| '''[[Business]]'''
 
| [[Business Advising]]
 
| [[Business Advising]]
| [[1982]]
+
| [[1976]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1985]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Computer Science]]
 
| [[Computer Science]]
| [[2003]]
+
| [[2001]]
| [[2008]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Cooperatives]]
 
| [[Cooperatives]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1976]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[NGO Advising]]
 
| [[NGO Advising]]
| [[2005]]
+
| [[1973]]
| [[2005]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[Crisis Corps]]'''
+
| [[Urban and Regional Planning]]
| [[Crisis Corps]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[1992]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[2004]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="12" align="center"| '''[[Education]]'''
 
| rowspan="12" align="center"| '''[[Education]]'''
| [[Bus. Ed/Sectl Skl]]
+
| [[Art Education]]
| [[1993]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[1995]]
+
| [[1981]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[English Teacher]]
 
| [[English Teacher]]
| [[1963]]
+
| [[1985]]
| [[2007]]
+
| [[2006]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[English Teacher Trainer]]
 +
| [[1993]]
 +
| [[1993]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Fisheries Fresh]]
 
| [[Fisheries Fresh]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1972]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Gen. Construction]]
 
| [[Gen. Construction]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1984]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1988]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Home Economics]]
+
| [[Industrial Arts]]
| [[1982]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1983]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Library Science]]
 
| [[Library Science]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[1989]]
 
|-
 
| [[Math Teacher Trainer]]
 
| [[1993]]
 
| [[1993]]
 
|-
 
| [[Occupat. Therapy]]
 
| [[1983]]
 
 
| [[1983]]
 
| [[1983]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Prim-Ed/Teach Trn]]
 
| [[Prim-Ed/Teach Trn]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1984]]
 
| [[2007]]
 
| [[2007]]
|-
 
| [[Science Teacher Trainer]]
 
| [[1992]]
 
| [[1993]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Math]]
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Math]]
| [[1965]]
+
| [[1985]]
| [[2008]]
+
| [[1998]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Sci.]]
 
| [[Secondary-Ed Sci.]]
| [[1967]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[2008]]
+
| [[2007]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Univ. English Teaching]]
 +
| [[1983]]
 +
| [[1983]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Voc. Trainer]]
 +
| [[1982]]
 +
| [[1991]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="4" align="center"| '''[[Environment]]'''
 
| rowspan="4" align="center"| '''[[Environment]]'''
 
| [[Comm Forestry Ext]]
 
| [[Comm Forestry Ext]]
| [[1986]]
+
| [[1987]]
| [[1997]]
+
| [[1998]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Environmental Ed.]]
 
| [[Environmental Ed.]]
 
| [[1991]]
 
| [[1991]]
| [[2002]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Forestry]]
 
| [[Forestry]]
Line 157: Line 140:
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Protected Areas Management]]
 
| [[Protected Areas Management]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1994]]
| [[1992]]
+
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="6" align="center"| '''[[Health]]'''
 
| rowspan="6" align="center"| '''[[Health]]'''
 
| [[Disease Control]]
 
| [[Disease Control]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1983]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1983]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Envir. and Water Resource]]
 
| [[Envir. and Water Resource]]
 +
| [[1969]]
 +
| [[1985]]
 +
|-
 +
| [[Health Degreed]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
| [[1994]]
+
| [[2008]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Health Extension]]
 
| [[Health Extension]]
| [[2003]]
 
| [[2007]]
 
|-
 
| [[Home Econ/Ext.]]
 
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
| [[1982]]
+
| [[2008]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Hygiene Ed/Sanitation]]
 
| [[Hygiene Ed/Sanitation]]
 
| [[1981]]
 
| [[1981]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[1981]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Nursing]]
 
| [[Nursing]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1985]]
| [[1983]]
+
| [[1990]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[Master's International]]'''
 
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[Master's International]]'''
Line 190: Line 173:
 
| [[2001]]
 
| [[2001]]
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[Other]]'''
+
| rowspan="2" align="center"| '''[[Other]]'''
 +
| [[Flexible App]]
 +
| [[1982]]
 +
| [[1992]]
 +
|-
 
| [[Unique Skill]]
 
| [[Unique Skill]]
| [[1963]]
+
| [[1980]]
| [[1999]]
+
| [[1992]]
|-
 
| rowspan="1" align="center"| '''[[UNV]]'''
 
| [[United Nations Volunteer]]
 
| [[1977]]
 
| [[1989]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| rowspan="4" align="center"| '''[[Youth and Community Development]]'''
 
| rowspan="4" align="center"| '''[[Youth and Community Development]]'''
 
| [[Appropriate Tech.]]
 
| [[Appropriate Tech.]]
| [[1985]]
+
| [[1981]]
| [[1987]]
+
| [[1981]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Commun. Serv/Deg.]]
 
| [[Commun. Serv/Deg.]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1985]]
| [[2007]]
+
| [[2008]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Mechanics]]
+
| [[Rural Youth Dev.]]
| [[1981]]
+
| [[1983]]
| [[1991]]
+
| [[1983]]
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Road Const/Engin.]]
+
| [[Youth Development]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[2008]]
| [[1989]]
+
| [[2008]]
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
  
[[Category:Tanzania]]
+
[[Category:The Gambia]]

Revision as of 02:43, 13 March 2009

History of the Peace Corps
vvZFOeV9RWw|250}}
Since 1960, when then Senator John F. Kennedy challenged students at the University of Michigan to serve their country in the cause of peace by living and working in developing countries, more than 182,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in 138 countries all over the globe.

See also:



The first Peace Corps Volunteers arrived in The Gambia at the invitation of the Gambian government in September 1967. They worked in skilled trades as mechanics, engineers, and carpenters, and they organized village cooperatives.

Two years later, another group of Volunteers arrived to work in education. Since that time, education has been a principal focus of Peace Corps activities in The Gambia. Education Volunteers have organized resource centers for primary schools; planned and launched libraries; developed teaching curricula and materials for classes in math, science, English, and environmental and forestry conservation; provided training for teachers in these subjects; and set up computer laboratories and taught information technology (IT) skills. Environment Volunteers have helped improve vegetable and fruit tree production in school gardens and orchards; helped control freshwater runoff and saltwater intrusion; constructed handmade dams that have doubled rice production; and assisted in managing seven Department of Forestry divisional nurseries. Health Volunteers work to prevent common diseases including malaria, respiratory infections, diarrhea, and HIV/AIDS. They also promote maternal and child health through education and community development.

Future of Peace Corps Programming in The Gambia

Peace Corps/The Gambia currently works in three development sectors: education, the environment, and health.

Regardless of their sector-specific assignments, Volunteers working in The Gambia work with colleagues in other sectors and in secondary activities such as HIV/AIDS education, youth and gender development, and girls’ education. Volunteers become an integral part of their local communities and have the opportunity to explain U.S. culture to their host families, villages, counterparts, and supervisors. This cross-cultural understanding is as essential to the Peace Corps’ mission as the technical assistance Volunteers provide.

The Peace Corps has been involved in The Gambia’s education sector since 1969. A significant reason for the project’s success has been its ability to respond to the changing needs of the sector. In addition to teaching students, education Volunteers have assisted in the development of curricula at all educational levels. They have worked in areas ranging from vocational education to teacher training in primary school education and secondary school math and science to computer operation and troubleshooting. In 1992, Peace Corps/The Gambia restructured its relationship with the Department of State for Education to more closely align with The Gambia’s education master plan. This plan aims to improve access to quality education for all Gambian students, especially girls.

About 30 Volunteers work in the education project. They conduct training for teachers at the regional and primary school levels. They also help build the capacity of their Gambian counterparts to produce and promote the use of teaching aids and student-centered learning activities, and they help set up and manage resource centers and libraries.

The rapid expansion in the number of new secondary schools, the shortage of qualified secondary school teachers (especially in math and science), the high rate of computer illiteracy, and limited IT facilities continue to be barriers to achievement of The Gambia’s development goals. To help meet these challenges, some Volunteers are providing pre-service training for teachers at The Gambia College, and some are teaching math and science at the university.

The Gambia is one of Africa’s smallest and least developed countries. Over the past 40 years, rapid population growth, low rainfall, unsustainable agricultural practices, exploitation of the natural resource base, and a lack of environmental awareness have caused a dramatic decline in agricultural productivity and biodiversity along with increased environmental degradation.

The project plan for the environment sector was developed in 1994 with the merger of the agriculture and forestry projects into a new agroforestry extension project plan. In 1997, that project plan was revised to add community forestry and environmental education. The project improves the quality of life of local communities by promoting protection of the environment and adoption of sustainable practices for managing natural resources. The goals are to implement practices that enable community members to manage their natural resource base (fields and forests) sustainably; to train educators working with students to increase environmental awareness and implement activities to protect the environment; and to increase the income and improve the nutrition of rural women by educating them about horticultural techniques and nutritional practices. Volunteers use formal and nonformal education tools to promote community forestry and improved horticultural and agricultural techniques in rural communities. Environment Volunteers are also engaged in poultry production, other community-based initiatives, such as beekeeping, and income generation projects for women.

About 35 Volunteers currently serve in the environment project, working in small rural communities in environmentally threatened and economically deprived areas of the country. Volunteers are attached to the Department of Forestry and work with community members such as government extensionists, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), teachers (for formal environmental education and school gardening), local farmers, and youth and women’s groups.

About 30 Volunteers are currently serving in the health project. They help develop primary health care, which The Gambia has adopted as its strategy for national health development. Volunteer assignments include helping Gambians plan and deliver health education, organizing in-service training for health workers, and designing teaching aids for health education. Volunteers are also involved in community development activities that promote health and they help implement activities that address identified health needs. Most health Volunteers are assigned to rural areas. Volunteers also work in the capital with the National Nutrition Agency, the National AIDS Secretariat, and The Gambia Family Planning Association. The rest work with divisional health offices, health centers and dispensaries, and village health services.

Assignment History in The Gambia

Sector Assignment Beg. Yr End. Yr
Agriculture Ag Economics 1984 1992
Ag Extension 1981 2008
Animal Husband Lg 1979 1982
Apiculture 1982 1985
Crop Extension 1967 1994
Business Business Advising 1976 1985
Computer Science 2001 2007
Cooperatives 1976 1989
NGO Advising 1973 2007
Urban and Regional Planning 1981 1981
Education Art Education 1981 1981
English Teacher 1985 2006
English Teacher Trainer 1993 1993
Fisheries Fresh 1972 1989
Gen. Construction 1984 1988
Industrial Arts 1980 1983
Library Science 1981 1983
Prim-Ed/Teach Trn 1984 2007
Secondary-Ed Math 1985 1998
Secondary-Ed Sci. 1981 2007
Univ. English Teaching 1983 1983
Voc. Trainer 1982 1991
Environment Comm Forestry Ext 1987 1998
Environmental Ed. 1991 2007
Forestry 1981 2007
Protected Areas Management 1994 2007
Health Disease Control 1983 1983
Envir. and Water Resource 1969 1985
Health Degreed 1981 2008
Health Extension 1981 2008
Hygiene Ed/Sanitation 1981 1981
Nursing 1985 1990
Master's International Masters Internationalist 2001 2001
Other Flexible App 1982 1992
Unique Skill 1980 1992
Youth and Community Development Appropriate Tech. 1981 1981
Commun. Serv/Deg. 1985 2008
Rural Youth Dev. 1983 1983
Youth Development 2008 2008