History of the Peace Corps in Kenya

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History of the Peace Corps
Since 1960, when then Senator John F. Kennedy challenged students at the University of Michigan to serve their country in the cause of peace by living and working in developing countries, more than 182,000 Peace Corps Volunteers have served in 138 countries all over the globe.

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The Peace Corps program in Kenya began soon after the country gained its independence in 1963, and it is one of the largest programs in Africa. The first group of 37 Peace Corps Volunteers arrived in Kenya on December 31, 1964. Since early 1965, the Peace Corps has been assisting the government of Kenya in meeting its development needs by providing skilled Volunteers in the areas of economic development, education, and public health.

To contribute to Kenya’s economic development, the Peace Corps focuses on activities that support creation of employment and income-generating opportunities. The country’s focus on gender equality creates a need to expand girls’ access to and retention in secondary schools. Also, the government of Kenya stresses the importance of providing education to children with special needs so that they can be fully contributing members of society. Public health continues to face challenges in both water-borne and infectious diseases, especially HIV/AIDS, and environmental health hazards. The Peace Corps/Kenya program enjoys strong support from government officials at national and district levels.

History and Future of Peace Corps Programming in Kenya

The Peace Corps’ support for Kenya’s development focuses on capacity building in the three priority areas mentioned above and supports Kenya’s goal of industrialization by 2020.

The country program addresses the reduction of poverty, educational needs of diverse populations, the impact of environmental degradation on health, and improvement of the life expectancy of Kenyans. Across all sectors, Peace Corps/Kenya targets women and youth as the most vulnerable in Kenyan society, and integrates HIV/AIDS education in all projects. Peace Corps/Kenya has redesigned the education project to focus on HIV/AIDS.


Peace Corps/Kenya’s education project places Volunteer teachers in both government and public secondary schools. Volunteers teach biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics and they work with their Kenyan colleagues to develop innovative teaching techniques in resource-poor environments.

In addition, the Peace Corps participates in Kenya’s deaf education program.

The Peace Corps’ Deaf Education Program now operates as a part of Kenya’s Special Education curricula that was kicked off in 1995 to cater to the people with disabilities in Kenya. The program remains the only Peace Corps program in that specifically focuses on the Deaf, however there are Peace Corps Volunteers worldwide who are working with hearing impaired populations.

The Program provides Volunteer teachers in schools for the Deaf to work with children to develop basic life skills and proficiency in Kenyan Sign Language. At the time of the program’s development, the educational use of sign language was very minimal and communication with the Deaf was limited. Since its inception, the Deaf Education Program has grown and Volunteers are earning respect for their significant contributions in improving education and raising community and parental awareness for the needs of Deaf children and adults alike.

One major contribution of the Peace Corps' work in Deaf education was their recognition of Kenyan Sign Language (KSL). Volunteers worked closely with Deaf Kenyan adults who were fluent users of KSL to create a digital dictionary of KSL. To learn more visit the Peace Corps’ interactive website on Kenyan Sign Language: http://www.peacecorps.gov/index.cfm?shell=learn.whatlike.interactivefeatures.ksl.

Kenyan and Volunteer educators work together to help create a future where students, both hearing and deaf, have the skills, knowledge, and attitudes to serve as productive members and future leaders of their communities, families, and workforce, and where communities are committed to accepting and taking care of all their members. Peace Corps/ Kenya’s education project’s goals reflect the multifaceted roles of Volunteers as teachers, colleagues, community members, and development workers.

Public Health

Peace Corps/Kenya’s public health project partners with the Ministry of Health, local and international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and community-based organizations. Volunteers work at the grassroots level with front-line extensionists as counterparts.

The three-pronged public health project addresses water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS prevention, and environmental education. Working with their Ministry of Health counterparts, Volunteers focus on facilitating communities’ efforts in these areas. These activities include hygiene education and home and community sanitation improvements to prevent waterborne diseases; HIV/AIDS education to reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS among youth and women; and environmental education awareness for natural resource conservation, prevention of environmental degradation, and improvement of health. Volunteer activities include strengthening preventive health through changing attitudes and behaviors in the communities where they live and work and by building the capacity of local agencies to continue this work.

Today, Kenya is on the brink of losing entire generations of trained workers and years of painstaking investment in human resource development to HIV/AIDS. As many as 700 Kenyans die every day from the pandemic. In response to the impact of HIV/AIDS, Peace Corps/Kenya launched a Crisis Corps program to provide shorter-term, targeted interventions that strengthen the government and NGOs’ capacity in prevention and care. The project also focuses on cross-sectoral interventions to assist communities affected by HIV/AIDS.

The AIDS pandemic strikes across all social strata in many Peace Corps countries. The loss of teachers has crippled education systems, while illness and disability drains family income and forces governments and donors to redirect limited resources from other priorities. The fear and uncertainty AIDS causes has led to increased domestic violence and stigmatizing of people living with HIV/AIDS, isolating them from friends and family and cutting them off from economic opportunities.

As a Peace Corps Volunteer, you will confront these issues on a very personal level. It is important to be aware of the high emotional toll that disease, death, and violence can have on Volunteers. As you strive to integrate into your community, you will develop relationships with local people who might die during your service. Because of the AIDS pandemic, some Volunteers will be regularly meeting with HIV-positive people and working with training staff, office staff, and host family members living with AIDS. Volunteers need to prepare themselves to embrace these relationships in a sensitive and positive manner. Likewise, malaria and malnutrition, motor vehicle accidents and other unintentional injuries, domestic violence and corporal punishment are problems a Volunteer may confront. You will need to anticipate these situations and utilize supportive resources available throughout your training and service to maintain your own emotional strength so that you can continue to be of service to your community.

Small-Enterprise Development/Information Communication Technology (SED/ICT)

Since launching the SED/ICT project in 1992, Volunteers in this sector have worked with their Kenyan counterparts to address opportunities and challenges faced by entrepreneurs in the small business sector. These problems include low levels of business skills (e.g., record-keeping, costing, pricing, etc.) and limited access to credit and markets. With increased challenges posed by slowed economic growth, Peace Corps Volunteers work closely with stakeholders to address broader national concerns like poverty alleviation, employment creation, and capacity-building. The technical skills provided by Volunteers include promoting income-generating activities, strengthening business management and marketing linkages, operating credit plans, enhancing basic computer literacy, and using information technology in various aspects of health and education.

Targeted groups served by small-enterprise development Volunteers include women’s groups, self-help and jua kali (artisan) groups, community-based organizations, selected NGOs, and technical institutes. As a result of Peace Corps intervention, many Kenyan, especially women and youth (who are the most vulnerable economically), have improved their skills, increased their income, and obtained employment. The demand for the services of small-enterprise development Volunteers continues to grow. problems faced by peace corps



                            IN KENYA AT LOITOKITOK’

‘PEACE CORP MISUSUNG LOITOKITOK INHABITANT’ ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to increase our understanding about how Peace Corps volunteers interact with cultural rules and norms while volunteering in another culture in Kenyan especially with the Maasai of loitokitok, as well as how they experience, and how their present effects the loitokitok inhabitant (Maasai) while staying in the region. More specifically, this research was done to gain a deeper understanding of experiences of the peace corps and cultural barrier they encounter while learning with individuals from Loitokitok (Maasai cultures). Twenty individuals were chosen to participate in this study; some were the Peace Corps themselves and others were the Loitokitok inhabitants. All participants were chosen because they had significant experience on volunteer ship the Peace Corps being professional volunteers and the Loitokitok inhabitant being the accommodation volunteers. A qualitative approach was used in which individuals were interviewed to uncover their personal experiences. I used the Constant Comparative Analysis to determine themes that evolved from the research. A total of seven themes were discovered, the interactions were successful on both ends and there was a lot of misunderstanding and a lot of learning on both sides, The big thing is creating relationships with the native of where your going to volunteer, by trying to figure out the reason why there is no such thing as too much preparation at Loitokitok on preparing the peace corps on establishing intercultural competence, I walked away from that experience with my eyes a little wider open; and realize different views regarding the peace corps volunteers misusing Loitokitok inhabitant by not offering their professional services to them, but only to be trained at the place, which is creating a bad image to the native. INTRODUCTION As philanthropic has taken another level in global market of volunteer ship, individuals and organizations are beginning to globalize and participate in international volunteer ship, in this case the American have establish the peace corps foundation, where volunteers are taken to the developing counties especially in Africa, and Asia in this case I will acquaint you to a study which I have learned in a small village in Kenya known as loitokitok, the place has been opted to be the peace corps orientation place, may be for the it cognitive fallacy of Lenana collaboration with the British, which proved Maasi people being friendly, where these peace corps are taken to individual volunteers whom accommodates them, this is what ill refers it as the social volunteerism, where volunteers are being volunteered, the black side of the game is the game end in a one way traffic, where peace corps do not help these Loitokitok inhabitant, the go there, live there, being oriented on sociologic, anthropologic and culturalogic enchantment of the ethnic cognition of the place these peace corps are to be stationed where they went to provide their professional. Cultures become increasingly essential for globalization which has insisted on the need for cultural competence, where these Peace Corps should be looking beyond the concept of globalization. The concept of working in different culture is paralleled with the difficulty of culture shock and being able to work and communicate with those from another cultural environment. Understanding globalization is a new way for individual and organizations to relate, grow, and improve their success in terms of understanding each other, especially those in Loitokitok-Kenya. Understanding the way to work together in across cultural environment is vital to make international communications successful and to outdo the negative perception of people around us, this should relate the peace corps to a school of thought that says leave and let others leave, this should be by outdoing negative perception of the peace corps whom are moving to evade creating distorted environment to the other coming lot. The purpose of this research is to increase our understanding about how cultural communication can be effective in interacting with other cultural rules and norms while working in another culture as well as how to maintain positive perception of your self, the image of peace corps should be reflective and the management of the peace corps in Kenya –loitokitok should arrange for some service day of these volunteers at least for loitokitok inhabitants to realized the meaning of peace corps in the region, this will create a reflective image and will increase acceptance of the peace corps to the inhabitant across the board . Although a significant amount of research has been done on cross-cultural communication encountered by the Peace Corps, little has been done on how these Peace Corps are being perceived in the culture zone where they operate on. As I was learning the effects of the communication barrier the Peace Corps encounter I also realized there was a bad image evoking from the peace corps operating charter of using Loitokitok as an orientation ground with no vote of thanks in terms of volunteering their services to the inhabitants. the following were the audience types which existed as whom perceved the peace corp presences. 1. apathetic group These persons are not ‘against’ peace corp present butthey are indifference to them, they may find your present to be less important as far as they are concerned.

2. skeptic group here the group is not against your presents but they are ‘above you’, unlike apathetic ,a skeptic is prepare to take an interest in your present but only to reinforced his ‘knowledge’ that there is nothing you can tell them about the subject, this group mostly consist of the people in higher hierarchy, enlighten and natural emotional egoism people. 3. believer group These are the type of people whom accept your present or your service, in deed you may be bringing them news of a personal benefit or assurance of recognition, these are people whom are supportive to your present with out apparent reasons. 4. Opponent group. This group are ‘hostile’ to your present may be they feel wronged in same way by you or your organization or they may be suspecting your after something, they are not ready to accommodate you or listen to anything you want to convey. 5. Rationalist group This people are reasonable enough to want to accept your present, but they are also wise enough to expect you give them a sound reason for accepting your present typically.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE This literature review will examine whether or not Peace Corps are providing enough training to the volunteers working at Kenya and how this affects the inhabitant’s interactions, the relevancy of their training to these Peace Corps in terms of promoting good relation of the peace corps and the inhabitant, do the training given to the peace corps looks on the inhabitant perception. An overview of cross-cultural training and its effects of interactions will be explained. In addition, uncertainty reduction theory will be defined and an explanation will be provided regarding how making peace corps aware of cultural differences helps adjust their doubts when entering another culture, especially for place where these peace corps are oriented on the sociologic, anthropologic and cultural aspects of the ethnic boundaries of where they are to operate. the aim of this report was to determine the barrier of cross cultural communication, where i realize that these peace corp did not give their services to the loitokitok inhabitant, where is their orientation groung which has been perceved negatively. Traveling to another country and experiencing culture shock can be very difficult. Doing so while trying to have successful working interactions can make that process even more challenging especially in area where people have cognitive distorting. The process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background leads them to interpret verbal and nonverbal signs differently, or intercultural communication, needs to be considered when making successful volunteering interactions, this can even be more challenging due to the fact that you’re not paid, the cultural barrier can discourage you from the volunteer ship. While preparing volunteers for an abroad volunteers situation, peace corp foundation seem to provide very little training. If training is provided, it tends to be as little as discussing with those who have been peace corping in the past, reading brochures, or books on the country they are planning to visit and website references, but these reading material have very little content on interior places like Loitokitok- Kenya peace corps who are ready to experience work abroad have been effective volunteers in these developing country which has many adventures, and the social fallacy of their experience make them feel as if they are ready for an overseas assignment. Once arriving in these countries quite a few fail and wish to return early while many others are not effective and productive in their assignments due to problems in adapting to a different, again, few are provided with cross-cultural training when preparing to this volunteer assignment abroad. To develop a positive influence on the Volunteer’ development skills, relational, perceptual and self-maintenance. This facilitates the adjustment to the new cultural environment and produces a more effective volunteer performance. These should was to concentrate on: 1. emotional stability.-here there is need to be emotional strong and mature to allow insult, and accomodate misstreate. 2. sociability. -the peace corps volunteer should horn their socialization ability to enable quick interraction and to develop friendly attitude. 3. need for cognition of different audience and their perception, need for structure and tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations, in addition to family adjustment.-this has justified that there is need for these peace corps to understand the native maasai, their way of live, their cultural strength and weakness, their attitudes etc. 4. intercultural communication-the ability to 5. Cross-cultural-cross cultural communication affect communication due to: 6. Cultural perception. 7. Social status. 8. Education. 9. Misunderstanding. 10. Sexual interaction of cross culture. 11. Willingness of social interaction. 12. Work and communication habits. Structure of cross cultural communication Cross-cultural communication (intercultural communication) is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, Intercultural competence is the ability of successful communication with people of other cultures and how they endeavour to communicate across cultures. A person who is interculturally competent captures and understands, in interaction with people from foreign cultures, their specific concepts in perception, thinking, feeling and acting. Earlier experiences are considered, free from prejudices; there is an interest and motivation to continue learning. Basic needs are sensitivity and self-consciousness: the understanding of other behaviors and ways of thinking as well as the ability to express one’s own point of view in a transparent way with the aim to be understood and respected by staying flexible where this is possible, and being clear where this is necessary ( strategic communication book-davis leshan). It is a balance, situatively adapted, between three parts:

     1.	knowledge (about other cultures, people, nations, behaviors

2. empathy (understanding feelings and needs of other people), and 3. self-confidence (knowing what I want, my strengths and weaknesses, emotional stability). Cultural characteristics can be differentiated between several dimensions and aspects; the ability to perceive them and to cope with them is one of the bases of intercultural competence. These include: • Collectivism and Individualism • Masculine and feminine cultures • Uncertainty avoidance • Power distance Uncertainty Reduction Theory- Uncertainty Theory assumes that when strangers meet their primary concern is reducing uncertainty and increasing predictability the theory examines the way we reduce uncertainty. the theory helps in studying cultural problems, this has been seemed to participate in perceiving of the peace corps as tourist, where the native Maasai of Loitokitok came to realize it was cognitive fallacy even white people can be poor. The theory has a “series of axioms (universal truths that do not require proof) and theorems (propositions assumed to be true) that describe the relationships between uncertainty and several communication factors. A situation where uncertainty could occur can range from an interaction with a local business man to interactions with the volunteers accommodator or their foreigners colleague. One concern in these cases is the uncertainty to predict others behaviors, If one can predict others’ behaviors, they could choose how to behave themselves that the need to reduce uncertainty provides a convincing explanation for social behavior in developing relationships between the native in Loitokitok and the peace corps, this also highlight the need for peace corps. to work on the reduction of the uncertainty through giving their professional service to the native especially where they are being oriented, When immersed in another culture, many volunteers experience uncertainty. Having to work while under these circumstances may create challenges for individuals who have never experienced culture shock before. The situation creates uncomfortable environment, they may change their actions to make the situation more bearable, or less uncertain. Cross-cultural training does reduce the severity of culture shock and, in turn, causes the volunteer to become effective and productive in the volunteer ship, It is still important to provide language based courses to those volunteers going to work abroad 6. Time in the assignment, cognitive ability, previous foreign experience and training adequacy on cross-cultural can facilitate these factors. 7. . Communication styles in different cultures are also very important. The training should include slang, sign language, and the local language, language differences and cross-cultural factors clearly create the potential for increased communication problems, especially in a place like Loitokitok where there is a number of illiterate people where not every body can speak English the Kenya official language, If there is indeed successful training done, volunteers who work abroad seem to be fairly successful; however, there is still a difference in communicative styles that has to be addressed. Individuals’ own communicative styles should be assessed and they need to understand their own communicative profile, the native of Loitokitok whom are Maasia have played a crucial role in teaching these Peace Corps the Kiswahili language which is the Kenya national language. This has give peace corps volunteers a more positive outlook on themselves as well as an increased tolerance for differences with others, Stressing communication style differences can make or break a volunteer ship interaction. Miscommunication seems to occur most often when the people communicating with each other have different perspectives on what counts as competence found that the factor that would push the volunteer to terminate their volunteer ship was the need for social support, the friendly attitude to ward them will be increase by how the previous crew conducted themselves this will also relate with the service package they offer to the native people, this will create a positive image to the peace corps. and will make the loitokitok inhabitant to be more friendly to them. Creating a way to adjust to another culture while socially interacting with those from that particular culture would improve adjustment, that why am emphasizing on the peace corps to create good image of themselves which will make the native people to be growing closer to each other; “understanding the culture and the communication styles of different people has become a vital issue” findings 1. social barrier-the socialization degree of the pese corp were limited, the evidence was that most time these peace corps seemed to be alone most of time. or some times they accompanied each others or by their accomodators, these also proved that these peace corps were not friendly to each other. 2. cognitive distortion-there were lack of understanding especially while in contact of illetrate inhabitant. 3. negative perception-inhabitant firstly perceve peace corps as tourist where they end up realizing these people were only volunteers, they are also perceved as misusers due to the fact that they did not over their service in the region. 4. scarcity- these peace corps are paid 2500 kshillings and the accommodator to be given the same as incentive to keep the peace corp, these amount is not enough to sustain these peace corps which force the accommodater to invest in their own kitty for better living accommodation standard.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS This research will explore the way peace corps are perceved by the ntive Maasia and how to successfully communicate with other cultures, and how to develop good relation with the native of Loitokitok. The following research questions will ground this study: RQ 1: How do Peace Corps describe their Loitokitok experiences? RQ 2: What strategies does Peace Corps management employ to ensure the Peace Corps experiences is as expected? RQ 3: How do participants describe their post-abroad work abroad experiences? RQ4: Are people friendly? Describe their attitudes toward Peace Corps METHOD This research was qualitative in nature. Qualitative research describes observations in predominantly non-numerical terms. After reviewing the data, I was able to actively create meaning out of raw materials. Most qualitative research in the communication field tends to describe or interpret communication exchanges, In this study, data was collected through interviews, observation and also participation, The interviews focused on the overall experiences, challenges, preparation and post-immersion experiences of volunteer ship. The interviews occurred between the researcher and the Peace Corps volunteer who had who were oriented at Loitokitok Kenya. Because this study required that participants were to have the volunteer ship experience either by hosting a Peace Corps or by being the Peace Corps themselves, the researcher chose interviewees who fit that criterion. Measurement The method for this research was interviews, observation and participation, An these methodology are valuable because they can generate more information about a given topic and explore possible reasons behind communication. Interviews were Specifically important to this study for they allowed me to gain a deeper understanding of the participants’ volunteers both the Peace Corps and the accommodators. A semi-structured interview was conducted. The objective of a semi-structured interview was to explore a topic more openly, thus allowing interviewees to express their opinions and ideas in their own words, I interview people to “try to move beyond my own understanding and ideas to really understand the other person’s point of view, In a semi-structured interview, the I asked basic questions about the topic of conversation; however, the interviewee’s responses ultimately shape the structure of the interview). The I also followed up with probing questions in order to try to reach a deeper understanding. Probing questions request elaboration and an explanation from the answer given to me, where I shaped the research so the I could participate Data Analysis The data conducted from the research was examined for a qualitative analysis. Following the interviews, the researcher reviewed e-mails, field notes and audio recordings and social net work comment on the research topic. The data was analyzed by determining the ways in which volunteers are prepared for a volunteer ship experience and if it makes communication more effective while working in a difference culture and when returning to their origin. The data was analyzed using Constant Comparative Analysis. The purpose of this Procedure is to look past the inevitable biases, prejudices and stereotypical perspectives that I could have bring to my study, by doing so, the I made sense of the data collected. The Constant Comparative Analysis helped me sort the data into a set of themes. A Constant Comparative method allows me to simultaneously code the date and categorize it into developing themes or patterns, these themes, taken together, effectively tell the story of the research participants experiences, while insuring that the researcher actively engages in illuminating the data, rather than simply “reporting” participants’ accounts, The Constant Comparative Analysis helped me develop results without bias. The themes that emerged from the Constant Comparative Analysis are displayed in the results. Being exposed to another style of living and another culture made participants realize there is a lot out there that is unknown and being exposed to that “is very eye opening, DISCUSSION Based on participants’ comments, it becomes obvious that the true success to an volunteer ship experience is being able to accept the challenge of fully emerging one’s mind and body into another culture. The results of this study help understand the importance of developing relationships while working with individuals from other Cultures. In addition, it shows the importance of figuring out the reason for communication differences and adapting to those differences to make a successful volunteer ship interaction. Finally, the results show us how important a e peace corps should look to their personal outlook in terms of developing positive image. Conclusion One The results of this study indicated that all participants discovered the importance of relationship building while volunteering with individuals from international volunteering. The relationship development included building rapport, being considerate and gaining trust. Regardless of the country, to be successful in their volunteer ship interaction or make the changes they were intended to, participants were forced to accept the challenge of taking significant time to build a relationship. They were able to sacrifice their duties in the beginning in order to really get to know who these native people were and understand where they came from. The need to reduce uncertainty provides a convincing explanation for social behavior in developing relationships with the local Maasai or others native tribes. This relationship building, in turn, will indeed reduced uncertainty of participants and helped them accomplish what they were here to do. The Peace Corps should gain trust and establish connections with those inhabitants to allow participants to successfully accomplish what they were set out to do and became the most important part of their volunteer experience. Conclusion Two

The interviewer asked participants to describe interactions that occurred while in Loitokitok (in a different culture) and how they were able to engage in successful daily operation and major transactions. Participants needed to take their own ideas, own ways of living, own ideas of culture and learn how to put them on hold to really take in another culture where some where successful. They should put their culture aside to take in and make room for the acceptance of another culture. Adapting to another culture is imperative to the success and experience of volunteer ship. Conclusion Three There is need for the Peace Corps management to develop good image of themselves, this is in terms of volunteering their professional service to the native peoples at Loitokitok and others orientation ground. Limitations One limitation that the researcher experienced was the variety of peace corps were accommodate by different people with different personalities which was not easy to realize the problem. CONCLUSION The focus of this research has been to discover a deeper meaning regarding cross cultural effect of communication on Peace Corps and their volunteer experiences. Participants provided me with their insight regarding personal volunteer ship experiences. The research focused on how they described their experience, the different tactics the volunteer used to navigate while in another culture and how the native are affected The data collected from the research revealed that relationship building is the most important thing while trying to conduct volunteer ship, this should be notice by the management that they introduce it to their syllabus. Volunteer should take time to get to know the people whom they are staying with to increase chances of gaining their trust and develop relationship successful in their volunteer interactions? The data also revealed that the developing relationships was vital and it was lacking, this has add insight on the need of the peace corps to learn how to develop relationship, this also shows that some peace corps lot are sharp in terms of interpersonal competence in communication than others especially the public health crew in June 2010, the need to volunteer service to the area where the Peace Corps are oriented was also highlighted by the survey where some of the native where in difference with the peace corps taking advantage of them by being well accommodated and not respond by giving them their professional volunteer ship,

Finding the reason for interaction and accepting differences will also make a

Successful volunteers interactions. Finally, the Peace Corps should be open to gain trust of local native, in exchange of their knowledge, social experience and general advice. From the data it shows that living in another culture gives volunteers the opportunity to learn things that are impossible to learn from picking up a book, surfing or being told where you will learn a lot of adventure, ethnography and invention. As our society continues to globalize and grow in international volunteering, it is essential to know that taking the time to build a simple relationship makes a bigger difference in volunteering interaction. recommentation a possible improvement of the situation is that these peace corps should plan on developingincentives to the loitokitok inhabitants which will help them to be perceived positively which will increase their friendly in terms of attitude to inhabitant.

Assignment History

Sector Assignment Beg. Yr End. Yr
Agriculture Ag Education 1980 1980
Ag Extension 1982 2000
Animal Husband 1980 1980
Animal Husband Lg 1980 1981
Crop Extension 1964 1991
Farm Mechanics 1983 1983
Soil Science 1973 1991
Business Accounting 1989 1992
Archictecture 1985 1986
Business Advising 1970 2007
Business Development 2003 2007
Computer Science 1992 2007
Cooperatives 1970 1998
Urban and Regional Planning 1981 2002
Crisis Corps Crisis Corps 1998 2006
Education English Teacher 1979 2002
English Teacher Trainer 1988 1991
Fisheries Fresh 1981 1988
Gen. Construction 1981 1991
Home Economics 1979 1979
Industrial Arts 1970 1988
Library Science 1986 1986
Literacy Ed. 1987 1987
Prim-Ed/Teach Trn 1966 1997
Science Ed/Gen. 1978 1987
Secondary-Ed Math 1965 2007
Secondary-Ed Sci. 1971 2007
Special Ed/Deaf 1993 1994
Special Ed/Gen. 1973 2007
Speech Therapy 1993 1993
Univ. English Teaching 1986 1990
Voc. Trainer 1983 1988
Environment Comm Forestry Ext 1986 1988
Environmental Ed. 1992 2002
Forestry 1978 2001
Protected Areas Management 1989 1999
Health Disease Control 1982 1989
Envir. and Water Resource 1969 2002
Health Degreed 2005 2007
Health Extension 1977 2007
Home Econ/Ext. 1981 1985
Hygiene Ed/Sanitation 1981 2007
Nursing 1978 1978
Master's International Masters Internationalist 1993 1993
Other Unique Skill 1981 2006
UNV United Nations Volunteer 1968 1990
Youth and Community Development Appropriate Tech. 1981 1988
Commun. Serv/Deg. 1981 2007
Mechanics 1982 1984
Road Const/Engin. 1986 1989
Rural Youth Dev. 1987 1990
Youth Development 2006 2006