Difference between pages "Health care and safety in Morocco" and "Health care and safety in Paraguay"

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The Peace Corps' highest priority is maintaining the good health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Morocco maintains a health unit with two full-time medical officers, who take care of Volunteers'€™ primary health-care needs. Additional medical services, such as testing and basic treatment, are also available in Morocco at local hospitals. If you become seriously ill, you will be transported either to an appropriate medical facility in the region or to the United States.
 
  
==Health Issues in Morocco ==
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The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Paraguay maintains a clinic that is staffed full time by a physician and a registered nurse, who take care of Volunteers’ primary healthcare needs. Additional medical services, such as testing and basic treatment, are also available in Paraguay at local, American-standard hospitals. If you become seriously ill or have a condition that cannot be handled adequately in-country, you will be medically evacuated to either Panama or the United States for treatment.
  
Major health problems among Volunteers in Morocco are rare and are often the result of Volunteers not taking preventive measures to stay healthy. The most common illnesses in Morocco are minor ones that are also found in the United States: colds, diarrhea, sinus infections, skin infections, headaches, dental problems, minor injuries, STDs, and emotional problems. These problems may be more frequent or compounded by life in Morocco because certain environmental factors in the country raise the risk or exacerbate the severity of illnesses and injuries.
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===Health Issues in Paraguay ===
  
The most common major health concern is amoebic dysentery, but it can be avoided by thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables and either boiling your drinking water or using the water purification tablets issued in your medical kit. You will be vaccinated against hepatitis A and B, meningoccal meningitis, tetanus/diphtheria, typhoid, rabies, MMR (mumps, measles and rubella), polio and regular flu.
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The most common illnesses that plague both Paraguayans and Volunteers are are also found in the United States, such as colds, bronchitis, diarrhea, constipation, sinus infections, skin infections, headaches, dental problems, minor injuries, STDs, emotional problems, and alcohol abuse. These problems may be more acute in Paraguay because certain environmental factors raise the risk or exacerbate the severity of certain illnesses and injuries. For instance, problems associated with cultural adaptation may exacerbate emotional problems or contribute to alcohol abuse. However, the most common ailments, which are easily preventable, are those associated with unclean water and poor food preparation, such as diarrhea and giardiasis (caused by a common parasite).  Hepatitis is much rarer, but it can also be transmitted by polluted water or poorly prepared food.  
  
==Helping You Stay Healthy ==
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Paraguay is fortunate to be free of many of the diseases endemic to tropical areas, such as amebiasis, Guinea worm, and typhoid fever. But there are seasonal upswings of dengue fever, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. Although its symptoms include severe muscular pain and headaches, dengue fever is rarely dangerous and normally requires a short period of bed rest. Malaria is rare, therefore Volunteers do not need to take malaria medication, but Volunteers traveling outside of the country may be exposed to malaria or other diseases not normally encountered in Paraguay.
  
The Peace Corps will provide you with all the necessary inoculations, medications, and information to stay healthy.  Upon your arrival in Morocco, you will receive a medical handbook. At the end of training, you will receive a medical handbook and a medical kit with supplies to take care of mild illnesses and first-aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter.  
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Volunteers are issued mosquito repellent and mosquito nets, which can be effective in the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.  
  
During pre-service training, you will have access to basic medical supplies through the medical officer. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as we will not order these items during training. Please bring a three-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive.  
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the necessary inoculations, medications, and information to stay healthy.  Upon your arrival in Paraguay, you will be briefed on the basics of healthcare by the Peace Corps medical officer. At the training, you will receive a  with  to take  of and first-aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter.  
  
You will have physicals at midservice and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, the Peace Corps medical officer in Morocco will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Morocco, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care.  
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During pre-service training, you will have access to basic medical supplies through the medical officer. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as the Peace Corps will not order these items for you during training.  
  
==Maintaining Your Health ==
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Please bring a three-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive. You might consider switching from name-brand to generic drugs, as the Peace Corps medical officer may not be able to purchase certain name-brand prescriptions. You will have physical exams at midservice and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, the medical officer in Paraguay will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Paraguay, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care.
  
As a Volunteer, you must accept a certain amount of responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The old adage “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States. The most important of your responsibilities in Morocco is to take preventive measures for the following:
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===Maintaining Your Health ===
  
Rabies is prevalent throughout the region, so you will receive a series of immunizations against it when you arrive in Morocco. If you are exposed to an animal that is known to have or suspected of having rabies, inform the Peace Corps medical officer at once so that you can receive post-exposure booster shots.  
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As a Volunteer, you must accept considerable responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The adage “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States. The most important of your responsibilities in Paraguay is to take the following preventive measures.  
  
Many illnesses that afflict Volunteers worldwide are entirely preventable if proper food and water precautions are takenThese illnesses include food poisoning, parasitic infections, hepatitis A, dysentery, tapeworms, and typhoid fever. Your medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Morocco during pre-service training.  
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You must make sure that your drinking water is safe. Many Volunteers live in communities with hand-dug wells, and that water is not as safe as water drawn from deep wellsConsequently, you will need to boil or otherwise treat your water. Water filters are not issued by Peace Corps/Paraguay because the Peace Corps medical officer has determined that they are not needed in most communities in Paraguay.  
  
Abstinence is the only certain choice for preventing infection with HIV and other STDs. You are taking risks if you choose to be sexually active. To lessen risk, use a condom every time you have sex. Whether your partner is a host country citizen, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. You will receive more information from the medical officer about this important issue.  
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You must ensure that your food has been prepared properly, whether by you or by others. Always eat foods that are well cooked and raw vegetables that have been cleaned with boiled or treated water. And remember that food spoils rapidly without refrigeration in a hot and humid climate. The medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Paraguay during pre-service training.  
  
Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the medical officer.  
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Always use the Peace Corps-issued mosquito net when sleeping to protect yourself from insect-borne illnesses such as dengue fever. Do not take medications other than those in your medical kit without the advice of the Peace Corps medical officer, and never have injections other than those given by the Peace Corps medical officer or by someone recommended by the medical office. It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office or other designated facility for scheduled immunizations, and that you let the medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injury.  
  
It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office or other designated facility for scheduled immunizations, and that you let the medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injuries.  
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Abstinence is the only certain choice for prevention of HIV/ AIDS and other STDs. You are taking a risk if you choose to be sexually active. To lessen risk, use a condom every time you have sex. Whether your partner is a host country citizen, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. You will receive more information from the medical officer about this important issue.  
  
==Women's Health Information ==
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Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the medical officer. Note that the medical office does not carry every type of birth control pill.
  
Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions which require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if the Volunteer remains in-country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met.
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===Women’s Health Information ===
  
Some female Volunteers have found that disposable tampons and pads are rather expensive and bothersome to dispose of in Morocco, and have found that bringing cloth sanitary napkins and other reusable feminine products is much more convenient. If you are interested, here are a few websites that offer such products:
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Pap smears will be done at midservice and at the close of service. Mammograms are done for women over age 50, also at midservice and the end of service.  
  
http://www.gladrags.com/  <br>
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Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions that require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if the Volunteer remains in-country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met.  
http://www.pandorapads.com/ <br>
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http://www.thekeeperinc.com/ <br>
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==Your Peace Corps Medical Kit ==
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Female Volunteers should consider bringing a one-year supply of feminine hygiene products (especially tampons) as they are expensive and not always available near their sites.
  
The Peace Corps medical officer will provide you with a medical kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that may occur during service. Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office.
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===Your Peace Corps Medical Kit ===
  
===Medical Kit Contents ===
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The Peace Corps medical officer provides Volunteers with a kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that may occur during service. Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office.
  
Ace bandages <br>
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====Medical Kit Contents ====
Adhesive tape <br>
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American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook  <br>
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Antacid tablets (Tums) <br>
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Antibiotic ointment (Bacitracin/Neomycin/Polymycin B) <br>
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Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens)  <br>
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Band-Aids <br>
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Butterfly closures <br>
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Calamine lotion <br>
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Cepacol lozenges <br>
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Condoms <br>
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Dental floss <br>
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Diphenhydramine HCL 25&nbsp;mg (Benadryl) <br>
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Insect repellent stick (Cutter’s) <br>
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Lip balm (Chapstick) <br>
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Oral rehydration salts and Gatorade <br>
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Oral thermometer (Fahrenheit) <br>
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Pseudoephedrine HCL 30&nbsp;mg (Sudafed) <br>
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Robitussin-DM lozenges (for cough) <br>
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Scissors <br>
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Sterile gauze pads <br>
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Tetrahydrozaline eyedrops (Visine) <br>
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Tinactin (antifungal cream) <br>
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Tweezers <br>
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Ace bandages <br>
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Acetaminophen (Tylenol) <br>
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Adhesive tape <br>
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Alarm whistle <br>
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American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook  <br>
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Antacid tablets (Di-Gel) <br>
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Antibiotic ointment (Bacitracin/Polymycin B) <br>
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Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens) <br>
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Band-Aids <br>
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Butterfly closures <br>
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Cepacol lozenges <br>
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Condoms <br>
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Dental floss <br>
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Diphenhydramine HCL 25&nbsp;mg (Benadryl) <br>
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Hydrocortisone cream <br>
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Ibuprofen <br>
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Insect repellent lotion  <br>
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Iodine tablets (for water purification)  <br>
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Latex gloves  <br>
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Lip balm (Chapstick)  <br>
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Mycelex  <br>
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Oral rehydration salts  <br>
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Pepto-Bismol tablets  <br>
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Pseudoephedrine HCL 30&nbsp;mg (Sudafed)  <br>
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Scissors  <br>
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Sterile gauze pads  <br>
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Sucrets lozenges  <br>
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Sunblock (Pre-Sun)  <br>
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Tetrahydrozaline eyedrops (Opti-Clear)  <br>
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Thermometer (Tempa-DOT)  <br>
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Tweezers  <br>
  
==Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist ==
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===Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist ===
  
If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.  
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If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.  
  
If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.  
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If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services immediately to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.  
  
To avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office, obtain a copy of your immunization record, and bring it to your pre-departure orientation. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment, either at your pre-departure orientation or shortly after you arrive in Morocco.  
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If you wish to avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office, obtain a copy of your immunization record, and bring it with you to Paraguay. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment after you arrive in Paraguay.  
  
Bring a three-month supply of any prescription or over-thecounter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this three-month supply, we will order refills during your service.  
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Bring a three-month supply of any prescription or over-thecounter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this three-month supply, it will order refills during your service. While awaiting shipment—which can take several months—you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescribed medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.  
  
While awaiting shipment—which can take several months— you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescribed medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.  
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You are encouraged to bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician. This is not a requirement, but they might come in handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a three-month supply of prescription drugs.  
  
You are encouraged to bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician. This is not a requirement, but these may come in handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a three-month supply of prescription drugs.  
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If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you—a pair you will use and a spare. If the first pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination. The Peace Corps discourages you from using contact lenses during your service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or associated solutions unless an ophthalmologist has recommended their use for a specific medical condition and the Peace Corps’ Office of Medical Services has given approval.  
  
If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you — a pair to use and a spare. If a pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination.  
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If you are eligible for Medicare, are over 50 years of age, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in healthcare plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique needs for coverage before your departure. The Peace Corps will provide all necessary healthcare from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service healthcare benefits described in the Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.  
  
We discourage you from using contact lenses during your service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or associated solutions unless an ophthalmologist has recommended their use for a specific medical condition and the Peace Corps’ Office of Medical Services has given approval.
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===Safety and Security—Our Partnership ===
 
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If you are eligible for Medicare, are over the age of 50, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in health-care plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique coverage needs before your departure.  The Peace Corps will provide all necessary health care from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service health-care benefits described in the Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.
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==Safety and Security—Our Partnership ==
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Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk.  Property thefts and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems. In addition, more than 84 percent of Volunteers surveyed in the 2004 Peace Corps Volunteer Survey say they would join the Peace Corps again.  
 
Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk.  Property thefts and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems. In addition, more than 84 percent of Volunteers surveyed in the 2004 Peace Corps Volunteer Survey say they would join the Peace Corps again.  
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The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest and most secure way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify and manage the risks you may encounter.  
 
The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest and most secure way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify and manage the risks you may encounter.  
  
==Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk==
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Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk  
  
There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are within the Volunteer’s control.  Based on information gathered from incident reports worldwide in 2004, the following factors stand out as risk characteristics for assaults. Assaults consist of personal crimes committed against Volunteers, and do not include property crimes (such as vandalism or theft).  
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There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are within the Volunteer’s control.  Based on information gathered from incident reports worldwide in 2004, the following factors stand out as risk characteristics for assaults. Assaults consist of personal crimes committed against Volunteers, and do not include property crimes (such as vandalism or theft).  
  
 
* Location: Most crimes occurred when Volunteers were in public areas (e.g., street, park, beach, public buildings). Specifically, 43 percent of assaults took place when Volunteers were away from their sites.  
 
* Location: Most crimes occurred when Volunteers were in public areas (e.g., street, park, beach, public buildings). Specifically, 43 percent of assaults took place when Volunteers were away from their sites.  
* Time of day: Assaults usually took place on the weekend during the evening between 5:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m.— with most assaults occurring around 1:00 a.m.  
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* Time of day: Assaults usually took place on the weekend during the evening between 5:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m.with most assaults occurring around 1:00 a.m.  
* Absence of others: Assaults ususally occurred when the Volunteer was unaccompanied. In 82 percent of the sexual assaults the Volunteer was unaccompannied and in 55 percent of physical assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied.  
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* Absence of others: Assaults ususally occurred when the Volunteer was unaccompanied. In 82 percent of the sexual assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied and in 55 percent of physical assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied.  
 
* Relationship to assailant: In most assaults, the Volunteer did not know the assailant.  
 
* Relationship to assailant: In most assaults, the Volunteer did not know the assailant.  
 
* Consumption of alcohol: Forty percent of all assaults involved alcohol consumption by Volunteers and/or assailants.   
 
* Consumption of alcohol: Forty percent of all assaults involved alcohol consumption by Volunteers and/or assailants.   
  
==Summary Strategies to Reduce Risk ==
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===Summary Strategies to Reduce Risk ===
  
 
Before and during service, your training will address these areas of concern so that you can reduce the risks you face.  
 
Before and during service, your training will address these areas of concern so that you can reduce the risks you face.  
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* Know the vocabulary to get help in an emergency  
 
* Know the vocabulary to get help in an emergency  
 
* Carry valuables in different pockets/places  
 
* Carry valuables in different pockets/places  
* Carry a “dummy” wallet as a decoy Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of burglary:  
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* Carry a “dummy” wallet as a decoy Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of burglary:  
 
* Live with a local family or on a family compound  
 
* Live with a local family or on a family compound  
 
* Put strong locks on doors and keep valuables in a lock box or trunk  
 
* Put strong locks on doors and keep valuables in a lock box or trunk  
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* Follow Peace Corps guidelines on maintaining home security Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of assault:  
 
* Follow Peace Corps guidelines on maintaining home security Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of assault:  
 
* Make local friends  
 
* Make local friends  
* Make sure your appearance is respectful of local customs; don’t draw negative attention to yourself by wearing inappropriate clothing  
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* Make sure your appearance is respectful of local customs; don’t draw negative attention to yourself by wearing inappropriate clothing  
 
* Get to know local officials, police, and neighbors  
 
* Get to know local officials, police, and neighbors  
 
* Travel with someone whenever possible  
 
* Travel with someone whenever possible  
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* Limit alcohol consumption   
 
* Limit alcohol consumption   
  
==Support from Staff ==
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===Support from Staff ===
  
In March 2003, the Peace Corps created the Office of Safety and Security with its mission to “foster improved communication, coordination, oversight, and accountability of all Peace Corps’ safety and security efforts.” The new office is led by an Associate Director for Safety and Security who reports to the Peace Corps Director and includes the following divisions: Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security; Information and Personnel Security; Emergency Preparedness, Plans, Training and Exercise; and Crime Statistics and Analysis.  
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In March 2003, the Peace Corps created the Office of Safety and Security with its mission to “foster improved communication, coordination, oversight, and accountability of all Peace Corps’ safety and security efforts.The new office is led by an Associate Director for Safety and Security who reports to the Peace Corps Director and includes the following divisions: Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security; Information and Personnel Security; Emergency Preparedness, Plans, Training and Exercise; and Crime Statistics and Analysis.  
  
The major responsibilities of the Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security Division are to coordinate the office’s overseas operations and direct the Peace Corps’ safety and security officers who are located in various regions around the world that have Peace Corps programs. The safety and security officers conduct security assessments; review safety trainings; train trainers and managers; train Volunteer safety wardens, local guards, and staff; develop security incident response procedures; and provide crisis management support.  
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The major responsibilities of the Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security Division are to coordinate the office’s overseas operations and direct the Peace Corps’ safety and security officers who are located in various regions around the world that have Peace Corps programs. The safety and security officers conduct security assessments; review safety trainings; train trainers and managers; train Volunteer safety wardens, local guards, and staff; develop security incident response procedures; and provide crisis management support.  
  
If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure that the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed.  
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If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure that the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed.  After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff provides support by reassessing the Volunteer’s work site and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed.  
  
After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff provide support by reassessing the Volunteer’s work site and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed. In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.  
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In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.  
  
The country-specific data chart below shows the incidence rates and the average number of incidents of the major types of safety incidents reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/ trainees in Morocco as compared to all other Europe, Mediterranean and Asia region programs as a whole, from 2000–2004. It is presented to you in a somewhat technical manner for statistical accuracy.  
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The country-specific data chart below shows the incidence rates and the average number of incidents of the major types of safety incidents reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/ trainees in Paraguay as compared to all other Inter-America and Pacific (IAP) region programs as a whole, from 2001– 2005. It is presented to you in a somewhat technical manner for statistical accuracy.  
  
 
To fully appreciate the collected data below, an explanation of the graph is provided as follows:  
 
To fully appreciate the collected data below, an explanation of the graph is provided as follows:  
  
The incidence rate for each type of crime is the number of crime events relative to the Volunteer/trainee population.  It is expressed on the chart as a ratio of crime to Volunteer and trainee years (or V/T years, which is a measure of 12 full months of V/T service) to allow for a statistically valid way to compare crime data across countries. An “incident” is a specific offense, per Peace Corps’ classification of offenses, and may involve one or more Volunteer/trainee victims. For example, if two Volunteers are robbed at the same time and place, this is classified as one robbery incident.  
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The incidence rate for each type of crime is the number of crime events relative to the Volunteer/trainee population.  It is expressed on the chart as a ratio of crime to Volunteer and trainee years (or V/T years, which is a measure of 12 full months of V/T service) to allow for a statistically valid way to compare crime data across countries. An “incident” is a specific offense, per Peace Corps’ classification of offenses, and may involve one or more Volunteer/trainee victims. For example, if two Volunteers are robbed at the same time and place, this is classified as one robbery incident.  
  
 
The chart is separated into eight crime categories. These include vandalism (malicious defacement or damage of property); theft (taking without force or illegal entry); burglary (forcible entry of a residence); robbery (taking something by force); minor physical assault (attacking without a weapon with minor injuries); minor sexual assault (fondling, groping, etc.); aggravated assault (attacking with a weapon, and/or without a weapon when serious injury results); and rape (sexual intercourse without consent).  
 
The chart is separated into eight crime categories. These include vandalism (malicious defacement or damage of property); theft (taking without force or illegal entry); burglary (forcible entry of a residence); robbery (taking something by force); minor physical assault (attacking without a weapon with minor injuries); minor sexual assault (fondling, groping, etc.); aggravated assault (attacking with a weapon, and/or without a weapon when serious injury results); and rape (sexual intercourse without consent).  
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When anticipating Peace Corps Volunteer service, you should review all of the safety and security information provided to you, including the strategies to reduce risk. Throughout your training and Volunteer service, you will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas including safety and security. Once in-country, use the tools and information shared with you to remain as safe and secure as possible.  
 
When anticipating Peace Corps Volunteer service, you should review all of the safety and security information provided to you, including the strategies to reduce risk. Throughout your training and Volunteer service, you will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas including safety and security. Once in-country, use the tools and information shared with you to remain as safe and secure as possible.  
  
==What If You Become a Victim of a Violent Crime? ==
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===What if you become a victim of a violent crime? ===
  
Few Peace Corps Volunteers are victims of violent crimes.  The Peace Corps will give you information and training in how to be safe. But, just as in the U.S., crime happens, and Volunteers can become victims. When this happens, the investigative team of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is charged with helping pursue prosecution of those who perpetrate a violent crime against a Volunteer. If you become a victim of a violent crime, the decision to prosecute or not to prosecute is entirely yours, and one of the tasks of the OIG is to make sure that you are fully informed of your options and help you through the process and procedures involved in going forward with prosecution should you wish to do so.  If you decide to prosecute, we are here to assist you in every way we can.  
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Few Peace Corps Volunteers are victims of violent crimes.  The Peace Corps will give you information and training in how to be safe. But, just as in the U.S., crime happens, and Volunteers can become victims. When this happens, the investigative team of the Office of Inspector General (OIG)  
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is charged with helping pursue prosecution of those who perpetrate a violent crime against a Volunteer. If you become a victim of a violent crime, the decision to prosecute or not to prosecute is entirely yours, and one of the tasks of the OIG is to make sure that you are fully informed of your options and help you through the process and procedures involved in going forward with prosecution should you wish to do so.  If you decide to prosecute, we are here to assist you in every way we can.  
  
 
Crimes that occur overseas, of course, are investigated and prosecuted by local authorities in local courts. Our role is to coordinate the investigation and evidence collection with the regional security officers (RSOs) at the U.S. embassy, local police, and local prosecutors and others to ensure that your rights are protected to the fullest extent possible under the laws of the country. OIG investigative staff has extensive experience in criminal investigation, in working sensitively with victims, and as advocates for victims. We also, may, in certain limited circumstances, arrange for the retention of a local lawyer to assist the local public prosecutor in making the case against the individual who perpetrated the violent crime.  
 
Crimes that occur overseas, of course, are investigated and prosecuted by local authorities in local courts. Our role is to coordinate the investigation and evidence collection with the regional security officers (RSOs) at the U.S. embassy, local police, and local prosecutors and others to ensure that your rights are protected to the fullest extent possible under the laws of the country. OIG investigative staff has extensive experience in criminal investigation, in working sensitively with victims, and as advocates for victims. We also, may, in certain limited circumstances, arrange for the retention of a local lawyer to assist the local public prosecutor in making the case against the individual who perpetrated the violent crime.  
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If you do become a victim of a violent crime, first, make sure you are in a safe place and with people you trust and second, contact the country director or the Peace Corps medical officer. Immediate reporting is important to the preservation of evidence and the chances of apprehending the suspect.  Country directors and medical officers are required to report all violent crimes to the Inspector General and the RSO. This information is protected from unauthorized further disclosure by the Privacy Act. Reporting the crime also helps prevent your further victimization and protects your fellow Volunteers.  
 
If you do become a victim of a violent crime, first, make sure you are in a safe place and with people you trust and second, contact the country director or the Peace Corps medical officer. Immediate reporting is important to the preservation of evidence and the chances of apprehending the suspect.  Country directors and medical officers are required to report all violent crimes to the Inspector General and the RSO. This information is protected from unauthorized further disclosure by the Privacy Act. Reporting the crime also helps prevent your further victimization and protects your fellow Volunteers.  
  
In conjunction with the RSO, the OIG does a preliminary investigation of all violent crimes against Volunteers regardless of whether the crime has been reported to local authorities or of the decision you may ultimately make to prosecute. If you are a victim of a crime, our staff will work with you through final disposition of the case. OIG staff is available 24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week. We may be contacted through our 24-hour violent crime hotline via telephone at 202.692.2911, or by e-mail at violentcrimehotline@peacecorps.gov.
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In conjunction with the RSO, the OIG does a preliminary investigation of all violent crimes against Volunteers regardless of whether the crime has been reported to local authorities or of the decision you may ultimately make to prosecute. If you are a victim of a crime, our staff will work with you through final disposition of the case. OIG staff is available 24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week. We may be contacted through our 24-hour violent crime hotline via telephone at 202.692.2911, or by e-mail at violentcrimehotline@peacecorps. gov.  
 
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==Security Issues in Morocco ==
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When it comes to your safety and security in the Peace Corps, you have to be willing to adapt your behavior and lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target of crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Morocco. You can reduce your risk by avoiding situations that make you feel uncomfortable and by taking precautions. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in the large cities; people know each other and generally will not steal from their neighbors. Tourist attractions, for instance, are favorite work sites for pickpockets. The following are some safety concerns in Morocco.
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Motor vehicle accidents. These represent the single greatest risk to your safety in Morocco. Volunteers are strongly encouraged to wear seat belts when available and to avoid riding in overcrowded taxis, buses, or vans. Because of the high safety risk, Volunteers in Morocco are restricted from traveling at night. If you have to travel for official business, the Peace Corps will reimburse expenses for the safest mode of transport.
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Robbery/burglary. Although such crimes have not been a serious problem in Morocco, you will need to take the same precautions you would take in the United States. The Peace Corps requires locks on all Volunteer homes.  
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Harassment. One of the greatest challenges for Volunteers in Morocco, especially females, is harassment. Normally this comes in the form of unwanted attention, but Volunteers have reported incidents such as having small stones or objects thrown at them by children, especially in large cities where they are not known. Strategies for dealing and coping with harassment will be discussed during pre-service training.
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===Security Issues in Paraguay ===
  
Alcohol abuse. Alcoholism is not a significant problem, but it is best to avoid frequenting non-hotel bars, particularly at night. Alcohol use can impair judgment, and Volunteers who drink must do so responsibly. Peace Corps/Morocco has a stringent alcohol-free policy at all Peace Corps events and training sites.  
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When it comes to your safety and security in the Peace Corps, you have to be willing to adapt your behavior and lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target of crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Paraguay. You can reduce your risk by avoiding situations that make you feel uncomfortable and by taking precautions. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in the large cities; people know each other and generally will not steal from their neighbors. Tourist attractions in large towns, for instance, are favorite work sites for pickpockets.  
  
Sexual assault. Volunteers in Morocco have rarely been targets of sexual assault. Those who take seriously the training provided on dealing with assaults, which are often associated with alcohol consumption and cross-cultural differences in gender relations, can minimize their risk. The Peace Corps urges Volunteers to report all assaults and threats of assault to the medical officer so that staff can respond with appropriate support.  
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There is clear evidence that the rate of crime increases as general standards of living fall. In Paraguay, the number of unemployed is increasing with migration from rural to urban areas, and the rate of poverty is increasing as salaries fail to keep up with inflation. Volunteers must respond to these changing circumstances by increasing their vigilance when away from their sites and by ensuring that their homes and personal property are secure. Peace Corps/Paraguay has hired a safety and security coordinator to assist Volunteers and staff with security concerns.  
  
Community integration is key to the success of a Volunteer.  Investing time in your site demonstrates your commitment to the community and, in turn, your community will consider you a part of them, and not a tourist. Peace Corps requires that each Peace Corps country have an “out-of-site” policy and that you, as a Volunteer, comply fully with this policy.  Peace Corps/Morocco has developed an out-of-site policy that encourages Volunteers to invest time in their sites, but at the same time realizes that “down time” is also important for Volunteers. The current policy, for example, does allow you to leave your site twice a month for two non-work days with an overnight. There will also be times that you will be out of your site for work-related purposes. You will be expected to follow established procedures any time you contemplate leaving your site by requesting approval and/or providing notification of your travel prior to leaving your site. The complete “outof-site” policy will be explained in greater detail during your in-country training. Although this policy will put limitations on your travels, something you need to recognize, it will lessen any risks that you may face while traveling around the country. Most importantly, it will enable Peace Corps/Morocco to locate you at any time should there be an emergency either relating to family back in the States or natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes.
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===Staying Safe: Don’t Be a Target for Crime ===
  
Sex outside of marriage is illegal in Morocco and may jeopardize your safety or your ability to develop mutually respectful relationships in your community and at your job. In addition, homosexual behavior is also illegal in Morocco, and gay and lesbian rights are not protected under the Moroccan Constitution. Moreover, some Moroccans are homophobic, and there have been instances of violence toward individuals who are openly gay. Gay and lesbian Volunteers therefore will have to practice discretion. The Peace Corps is committed to providing support for all Volunteers regardless of sexual orientation.
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You must be prepared to take on a large degree of responsibility for your own safety. Only you can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your home is secure, and develop relations in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime. In coming to Paraguay, do what you would do if you moved to a new city in the United States:
  
==Staying Safe: Don't Be a Target for Crime ==
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Be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Paraguay may require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.
  
You must be prepared to take on a large responsibility for your own safety. Only you can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your house is secure, and develop relations in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime. In coming to Morocco, do what you would do if you moved to a large city in the United States: be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Morocco may require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.  
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Volunteers attract a lot of attention in large cities and at their sites, but they are likely to receive more negative attention in highly populated centers than at their sites, where their “family,” friends, and colleagues look out for them. While whistles and exclamations are fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, avoid eye contact, and do not respond to unwanted attention.  In addition, keep your money out of sight by using an undergarment money pouch, the kind that hangs around your neck and stays hidden under your shirt or inside your coat. Do not keep your money in outside pockets of backpacks, in coat pockets, or in fanny packs. And always walk with a companion at night.  
  
Volunteers attract a lot of attention both in large cities and at their sites, but they are likely to receive more negative attention in highly populated centers where they are anonymous, than at their sites, and in smaller towns, where “family,” friends, and colleagues look out for them. While unwanted attention is fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, avoid eye contact, and do not respond. In addition, keep your money out of sight; do not keep your money in outside pockets of backpacks, in coat pockets, or in fanny packs; and always walk with a companion at night.
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Preparing for the Unexpected: Safety Training and Volunteer Support in Paraguay
  
==Preparing for the Unexpected: Safety Training and Volunteer Support in Morocco==
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The Peace Corps’ approach to safety is a five-pronged plan to help you stay safe during your two-year service and includes the following: information sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed emergency action plan, and protocols for addressing safety and security incidents.  Paraguay’s in-country safety program is outlined below.
  
The Peace Corps’ safety program takes a five-pronged approach to helping you stay safe during your two-year service: information- sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed emergency action plan, and protocols for addressing safety and security incidents. Morocco’s in-country safety program is outlined below.  
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The Peace Corps/Paraguay office will keep you informed of any issues that may impact your safety through information sharing. Regular updates will be provided in Volunteer newsletters and in memorandums from the country director.  In the event of a critical situation or emergency, you will be contacted through the emergency communication network, which is tested periodically so that any problems can be resolved.  
  
The Peace Corps/Morocco office will keep Volunteers apprised of any issues that may impact Volunteer safety through information sharing. Regular updates are offered in Peaceworks, the Volunteer newsletter, and in memoranda from the country director. In the event of a critical situation or emergency, Volunteers will be contacted through the emergency communication network.  
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Volunteer training will include sessions to prepare you for specific safety and security issues in Paraguay. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risk in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout your two-year service and is integrated into language, cross-cultural, health, and other components of training, including Volunteer-led initiatives such as the Peer Support Network.  
  
Volunteer training will include sessions on specific safety and security issues in Morocco. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risks in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout your service and is integrated into the language, cross-cultural, health, and other components of training.  
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Certain site selection criteria are used to determine safe housing for Volunteers before their arrival. The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to help prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to clarify expectations of their roles in supporting the Volunteer.  
  
Site selection criteria are used to determine viable work assignments and safe sites for Volunteers before their arrival.  The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to establish expectations of their respective roles in supporting the Volunteer. Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure host family homes and work sites. Site selection is based in part on any relevant site history; access to medical, banking, postal, and other essential services; availability of communications, transportation, appropriate housing and markets; and other Volunteer support needs.  
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Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure housing and work sites. Site selection is based on a variety of factors, including relevant site history; access to medical, banking, and other essential services; availability of communications, transportation, and markets; housing options and living arrangements; and other Volunteer support needs.  
  
You will also learn about Peace Corps/Morocco’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of civil or political unrest or a natural disaster. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house. If there is a security threat, Volunteers in Morocco will gather at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.  
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You will also learn about Peace Corps/Paraguay’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of civil or political unrest or a natural disaster. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house. If there is a security threat, you will gather with other Volunteers in Paraguay at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.  
  
Finally, in order for the Peace Corps to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps medical officer. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.  
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Finally, in order for the Peace Corps to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps medical officer or safety and security coordinator. Volunteers are also encouraged to speak with their project director or the country director about security concerns or possible threats to security. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.  
  
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[[Category:Paraguay]]
 
[[Category:Health and Safety]]
 
[[Category:Health and Safety]]

Revision as of 10:11, 8 December 2015

Country Resources

The Peace Corps’ highest priority is maintaining the health and safety of every Volunteer. Peace Corps medical programs emphasize the preventive, rather than the curative, approach to disease. The Peace Corps in Paraguay maintains a clinic that is staffed full time by a physician and a registered nurse, who take care of Volunteers’ primary healthcare needs. Additional medical services, such as testing and basic treatment, are also available in Paraguay at local, American-standard hospitals. If you become seriously ill or have a condition that cannot be handled adequately in-country, you will be medically evacuated to either Panama or the United States for treatment.

Health Issues in Paraguay

The most common illnesses that plague both Paraguayans and Volunteers are are also found in the United States, such as colds, bronchitis, diarrhea, constipation, sinus infections, skin infections, headaches, dental problems, minor injuries, STDs, emotional problems, and alcohol abuse. These problems may be more acute in Paraguay because certain environmental factors raise the risk or exacerbate the severity of certain illnesses and injuries. For instance, problems associated with cultural adaptation may exacerbate emotional problems or contribute to alcohol abuse. However, the most common ailments, which are easily preventable, are those associated with unclean water and poor food preparation, such as diarrhea and giardiasis (caused by a common parasite). Hepatitis is much rarer, but it can also be transmitted by polluted water or poorly prepared food.

Paraguay is fortunate to be free of many of the diseases endemic to tropical areas, such as amebiasis, Guinea worm, and typhoid fever. But there are seasonal upswings of dengue fever, which is transmitted by mosquitoes. Although its symptoms include severe muscular pain and headaches, dengue fever is rarely dangerous and normally requires a short period of bed rest. Malaria is rare, therefore Volunteers do not need to take malaria medication, but Volunteers traveling outside of the country may be exposed to malaria or other diseases not normally encountered in Paraguay.

Volunteers are issued mosquito repellent and mosquito nets, which can be effective in the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.

the necessary inoculations, medications, and information to stay healthy. Upon your arrival in Paraguay, you will be briefed on the basics of healthcare by the Peace Corps medical officer. At the training, you will receive a with to take of and first-aid needs. The contents of the kit are listed later in this chapter.

During pre-service training, you will have access to basic medical supplies through the medical officer. However, you will be responsible for your own supply of prescription drugs and any other specific medical supplies you require, as the Peace Corps will not order these items for you during training.

Please bring a three-month supply of any prescription drugs you use, since they may not be available here and it may take several months for shipments to arrive. You might consider switching from name-brand to generic drugs, as the Peace Corps medical officer may not be able to purchase certain name-brand prescriptions. You will have physical exams at midservice and at the end of your service. If you develop a serious medical problem during your service, the medical officer in Paraguay will consult with the Office of Medical Services in Washington, D.C. If it is determined that your condition cannot be treated in Paraguay, you may be sent out of the country for further evaluation and care.

Maintaining Your Health

As a Volunteer, you must accept considerable responsibility for your own health. Proper precautions will significantly reduce your risk of serious illness or injury. The adage “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” becomes extremely important in areas where diagnostic and treatment facilities are not up to the standards of the United States. The most important of your responsibilities in Paraguay is to take the following preventive measures.

You must make sure that your drinking water is safe. Many Volunteers live in communities with hand-dug wells, and that water is not as safe as water drawn from deep wells. Consequently, you will need to boil or otherwise treat your water. Water filters are not issued by Peace Corps/Paraguay because the Peace Corps medical officer has determined that they are not needed in most communities in Paraguay.

You must ensure that your food has been prepared properly, whether by you or by others. Always eat foods that are well cooked and raw vegetables that have been cleaned with boiled or treated water. And remember that food spoils rapidly without refrigeration in a hot and humid climate. The medical officer will discuss specific standards for water and food preparation in Paraguay during pre-service training.

Always use the Peace Corps-issued mosquito net when sleeping to protect yourself from insect-borne illnesses such as dengue fever. Do not take medications other than those in your medical kit without the advice of the Peace Corps medical officer, and never have injections other than those given by the Peace Corps medical officer or by someone recommended by the medical office. It is critical to your health that you promptly report to the medical office or other designated facility for scheduled immunizations, and that you let the medical officer know immediately of significant illnesses and injury.

Abstinence is the only certain choice for prevention of HIV/ AIDS and other STDs. You are taking a risk if you choose to be sexually active. To lessen risk, use a condom every time you have sex. Whether your partner is a host country citizen, a fellow Volunteer, or anyone else, do not assume this person is free of HIV/AIDS or other STDs. You will receive more information from the medical officer about this important issue.

Volunteers are expected to adhere to an effective means of birth control to prevent an unplanned pregnancy. Your medical officer can help you decide on the most appropriate method to suit your individual needs. Contraceptive methods are available without charge from the medical officer. Note that the medical office does not carry every type of birth control pill.

Women’s Health Information

Pap smears will be done at midservice and at the close of service. Mammograms are done for women over age 50, also at midservice and the end of service.

Pregnancy is treated in the same manner as other Volunteer health conditions that require medical attention but also have programmatic ramifications. The Peace Corps is responsible for determining the medical risk and the availability of appropriate medical care if the Volunteer remains in-country. Given the circumstances under which Volunteers live and work in Peace Corps countries, it is rare that the Peace Corps’ medical and programmatic standards for continued service during pregnancy can be met.

Female Volunteers should consider bringing a one-year supply of feminine hygiene products (especially tampons) as they are expensive and not always available near their sites.

Your Peace Corps Medical Kit

The Peace Corps medical officer provides Volunteers with a kit that contains basic items necessary to prevent and treat illnesses that may occur during service. Kit items can be periodically restocked at the medical office.

Medical Kit Contents

Ace bandages
Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
Adhesive tape
Alarm whistle
American Red Cross First Aid & Safety Handbook
Antacid tablets (Di-Gel)
Antibiotic ointment (Bacitracin/Polymycin B)
Antiseptic antimicrobial skin cleaner (Hibiclens)
Band-Aids
Butterfly closures
Cepacol lozenges
Condoms
Dental floss
Diphenhydramine HCL 25 mg (Benadryl)
Hydrocortisone cream
Ibuprofen
Insect repellent lotion
Iodine tablets (for water purification)
Latex gloves
Lip balm (Chapstick)
Mycelex
Oral rehydration salts
Pepto-Bismol tablets
Pseudoephedrine HCL 30 mg (Sudafed)
Scissors
Sterile gauze pads
Sucrets lozenges
Sunblock (Pre-Sun)
Tetrahydrozaline eyedrops (Opti-Clear)
Thermometer (Tempa-DOT)
Tweezers

Before You Leave: A Medical Checklist

If there has been any change in your health—physical, mental, or dental—since you submitted your examination reports to the Peace Corps, you must immediately notify the Office of Medical Services. Failure to disclose new illnesses, injuries, allergies, or pregnancy can endanger your health and may jeopardize your eligibility to serve.

If your dental exam was done more than a year ago, or if your physical exam is more than two years old, contact the Office of Medical Services immediately to find out whether you need to update your records. If your dentist or Peace Corps dental consultant has recommended that you undergo dental treatment or repair, you must complete that work and make sure your dentist sends requested confirmation reports or X-rays to the Office of Medical Services.

If you wish to avoid having duplicate vaccinations, contact your physician’s office, obtain a copy of your immunization record, and bring it with you to Paraguay. If you have any immunizations prior to Peace Corps service, the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for the cost. The Peace Corps will provide all the immunizations necessary for your overseas assignment after you arrive in Paraguay.

Bring a three-month supply of any prescription or over-thecounter medication you use on a regular basis, including birth control pills. Although the Peace Corps cannot reimburse you for this three-month supply, it will order refills during your service. While awaiting shipment—which can take several months—you will be dependent on your own medication supply. The Peace Corps will not pay for herbal or nonprescribed medications, such as St. John’s wort, glucosamine, selenium, or antioxidant supplements.

You are encouraged to bring copies of medical prescriptions signed by your physician. This is not a requirement, but they might come in handy if you are questioned in transit about carrying a three-month supply of prescription drugs.

If you wear eyeglasses, bring two pairs with you—a pair you will use and a spare. If the first pair breaks, the Peace Corps will replace it, using the information your doctor in the United States provided on the eyeglasses form during your examination. The Peace Corps discourages you from using contact lenses during your service to reduce your risk of developing a serious infection or other eye disease. Most Peace Corps countries do not have appropriate water and sanitation to support eye care with the use of contact lenses. The Peace Corps will not supply or replace contact lenses or associated solutions unless an ophthalmologist has recommended their use for a specific medical condition and the Peace Corps’ Office of Medical Services has given approval.

If you are eligible for Medicare, are over 50 years of age, or have a health condition that may restrict your future participation in healthcare plans, you may wish to consult an insurance specialist about unique needs for coverage before your departure. The Peace Corps will provide all necessary healthcare from the time you leave for your pre-departure orientation until you complete your service. When you finish, you will be entitled to the post-service healthcare benefits described in the Peace Corps Volunteer Handbook. You may wish to consider keeping an existing health plan in effect during your service if you think age or preexisting conditions might prevent you from reenrolling in your current plan when you return home.

Safety and Security—Our Partnership

Serving as a Volunteer overseas entails certain safety and security risks. Living and traveling in an unfamiliar environment, a limited understanding of the local language and culture, and the perception of being a wealthy American are some of the factors that can put a Volunteer at risk. Property thefts and burglaries are not uncommon. Incidents of physical and sexual assault do occur, although almost all Volunteers complete their two years of service without serious personal safety problems. In addition, more than 84 percent of Volunteers surveyed in the 2004 Peace Corps Volunteer Survey say they would join the Peace Corps again.

The Peace Corps approaches safety and security as a partnership with you. This Welcome Book contains sections on: Living Conditions and Volunteer Lifestyle; Peace Corps Training; and Your Health Care and Safety. All of these sections include important safety and security information.

The Peace Corps makes every effort to give Volunteers the tools they need to function in the safest and most secure way possible, because working to maximize the safety and security of Volunteers is our highest priority. Not only do we provide you with training and tools to prepare for the unexpected, but we teach you to identify and manage the risks you may encounter.

Factors that Contribute to Volunteer Risk

There are several factors that can heighten a Volunteer’s risk, many of which are within the Volunteer’s control. Based on information gathered from incident reports worldwide in 2004, the following factors stand out as risk characteristics for assaults. Assaults consist of personal crimes committed against Volunteers, and do not include property crimes (such as vandalism or theft).

  • Location: Most crimes occurred when Volunteers were in public areas (e.g., street, park, beach, public buildings). Specifically, 43 percent of assaults took place when Volunteers were away from their sites.
  • Time of day: Assaults usually took place on the weekend during the evening between 5:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m.— with most assaults occurring around 1:00 a.m.
  • Absence of others: Assaults ususally occurred when the Volunteer was unaccompanied. In 82 percent of the sexual assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied and in 55 percent of physical assaults the Volunteer was unaccompanied.
  • Relationship to assailant: In most assaults, the Volunteer did not know the assailant.
  • Consumption of alcohol: Forty percent of all assaults involved alcohol consumption by Volunteers and/or assailants.

Summary Strategies to Reduce Risk

Before and during service, your training will address these areas of concern so that you can reduce the risks you face.

For example, here are some strategies Volunteers employ:

Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of theft:

  • Know the environment and choose safe routes/times for travel
  • Avoid high-crime areas per Peace Corps guidance
  • Know the vocabulary to get help in an emergency
  • Carry valuables in different pockets/places
  • Carry a “dummy” wallet as a decoy Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of burglary:
  • Live with a local family or on a family compound
  • Put strong locks on doors and keep valuables in a lock box or trunk
  • Leave irreplaceable objects at home in the U.S.
  • Follow Peace Corps guidelines on maintaining home security Strategies to reduce the risk/impact of assault:
  • Make local friends
  • Make sure your appearance is respectful of local customs; don’t draw negative attention to yourself by wearing inappropriate clothing
  • Get to know local officials, police, and neighbors
  • Travel with someone whenever possible
  • Avoid known high crime areas
  • Limit alcohol consumption

Support from Staff

In March 2003, the Peace Corps created the Office of Safety and Security with its mission to “foster improved communication, coordination, oversight, and accountability of all Peace Corps’ safety and security efforts.” The new office is led by an Associate Director for Safety and Security who reports to the Peace Corps Director and includes the following divisions: Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security; Information and Personnel Security; Emergency Preparedness, Plans, Training and Exercise; and Crime Statistics and Analysis.

The major responsibilities of the Volunteer Safety and Overseas Security Division are to coordinate the office’s overseas operations and direct the Peace Corps’ safety and security officers who are located in various regions around the world that have Peace Corps programs. The safety and security officers conduct security assessments; review safety trainings; train trainers and managers; train Volunteer safety wardens, local guards, and staff; develop security incident response procedures; and provide crisis management support.

If a trainee or Volunteer is the victim of a safety incident, Peace Corps staff is prepared to provide support. All Peace Corps posts have procedures in place to respond to incidents of crime committed against Volunteers. The first priority for all posts in the aftermath of an incident is to ensure that the Volunteer is safe and receiving medical treatment as needed. After assuring the safety of the Volunteer, Peace Corps staff provides support by reassessing the Volunteer’s work site and housing arrangements and making any adjustments, as needed.

In some cases, the nature of the incident may necessitate a site or housing transfer. Peace Corps staff will also assist Volunteers with preserving their rights to pursue legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime. It is very important that Volunteers report incidents as they occur, not only to protect their peer Volunteers, but also to preserve the future right to prosecute. Should Volunteers decide later in the process that they want to proceed with the prosecution of their assailant, this option may no longer exist if the evidence of the event has not been preserved at the time of the incident.

The country-specific data chart below shows the incidence rates and the average number of incidents of the major types of safety incidents reported by Peace Corps Volunteers/ trainees in Paraguay as compared to all other Inter-America and Pacific (IAP) region programs as a whole, from 2001– 2005. It is presented to you in a somewhat technical manner for statistical accuracy.

To fully appreciate the collected data below, an explanation of the graph is provided as follows:

The incidence rate for each type of crime is the number of crime events relative to the Volunteer/trainee population. It is expressed on the chart as a ratio of crime to Volunteer and trainee years (or V/T years, which is a measure of 12 full months of V/T service) to allow for a statistically valid way to compare crime data across countries. An “incident” is a specific offense, per Peace Corps’ classification of offenses, and may involve one or more Volunteer/trainee victims. For example, if two Volunteers are robbed at the same time and place, this is classified as one robbery incident.

The chart is separated into eight crime categories. These include vandalism (malicious defacement or damage of property); theft (taking without force or illegal entry); burglary (forcible entry of a residence); robbery (taking something by force); minor physical assault (attacking without a weapon with minor injuries); minor sexual assault (fondling, groping, etc.); aggravated assault (attacking with a weapon, and/or without a weapon when serious injury results); and rape (sexual intercourse without consent).

When anticipating Peace Corps Volunteer service, you should review all of the safety and security information provided to you, including the strategies to reduce risk. Throughout your training and Volunteer service, you will be expected to successfully complete all training competencies in a variety of areas including safety and security. Once in-country, use the tools and information shared with you to remain as safe and secure as possible.

What if you become a victim of a violent crime?

Few Peace Corps Volunteers are victims of violent crimes. The Peace Corps will give you information and training in how to be safe. But, just as in the U.S., crime happens, and Volunteers can become victims. When this happens, the investigative team of the Office of Inspector General (OIG)

is charged with helping pursue prosecution of those who perpetrate a violent crime against a Volunteer. If you become a victim of a violent crime, the decision to prosecute or not to prosecute is entirely yours, and one of the tasks of the OIG is to make sure that you are fully informed of your options and help you through the process and procedures involved in going forward with prosecution should you wish to do so. If you decide to prosecute, we are here to assist you in every way we can.

Crimes that occur overseas, of course, are investigated and prosecuted by local authorities in local courts. Our role is to coordinate the investigation and evidence collection with the regional security officers (RSOs) at the U.S. embassy, local police, and local prosecutors and others to ensure that your rights are protected to the fullest extent possible under the laws of the country. OIG investigative staff has extensive experience in criminal investigation, in working sensitively with victims, and as advocates for victims. We also, may, in certain limited circumstances, arrange for the retention of a local lawyer to assist the local public prosecutor in making the case against the individual who perpetrated the violent crime.

If you do become a victim of a violent crime, first, make sure you are in a safe place and with people you trust and second, contact the country director or the Peace Corps medical officer. Immediate reporting is important to the preservation of evidence and the chances of apprehending the suspect. Country directors and medical officers are required to report all violent crimes to the Inspector General and the RSO. This information is protected from unauthorized further disclosure by the Privacy Act. Reporting the crime also helps prevent your further victimization and protects your fellow Volunteers.

In conjunction with the RSO, the OIG does a preliminary investigation of all violent crimes against Volunteers regardless of whether the crime has been reported to local authorities or of the decision you may ultimately make to prosecute. If you are a victim of a crime, our staff will work with you through final disposition of the case. OIG staff is available 24 hours-a-day, 7 days-a-week. We may be contacted through our 24-hour violent crime hotline via telephone at 202.692.2911, or by e-mail at violentcrimehotline@peacecorps. gov.

Security Issues in Paraguay

When it comes to your safety and security in the Peace Corps, you have to be willing to adapt your behavior and lifestyle to minimize the potential for being a target of crime. As with anywhere in the world, crime does exist in Paraguay. You can reduce your risk by avoiding situations that make you feel uncomfortable and by taking precautions. Crime at the village or town level is less frequent than in the large cities; people know each other and generally will not steal from their neighbors. Tourist attractions in large towns, for instance, are favorite work sites for pickpockets.

There is clear evidence that the rate of crime increases as general standards of living fall. In Paraguay, the number of unemployed is increasing with migration from rural to urban areas, and the rate of poverty is increasing as salaries fail to keep up with inflation. Volunteers must respond to these changing circumstances by increasing their vigilance when away from their sites and by ensuring that their homes and personal property are secure. Peace Corps/Paraguay has hired a safety and security coordinator to assist Volunteers and staff with security concerns.

Staying Safe: Don’t Be a Target for Crime

You must be prepared to take on a large degree of responsibility for your own safety. Only you can make yourself less of a target, ensure that your home is secure, and develop relations in your community that will make you an unlikely victim of crime. In coming to Paraguay, do what you would do if you moved to a new city in the United States:

Be cautious, check things out, ask questions, learn about your neighborhood, know where the more risky locations are, use common sense, and be aware. You can reduce your vulnerability to crime by integrating into your community, learning the local language, acting responsibly, and abiding by Peace Corps policies and procedures. Serving safely and effectively in Paraguay may require that you accept some restrictions on your current lifestyle.

Volunteers attract a lot of attention in large cities and at their sites, but they are likely to receive more negative attention in highly populated centers than at their sites, where their “family,” friends, and colleagues look out for them. While whistles and exclamations are fairly common on the street, this behavior can be reduced if you dress conservatively, avoid eye contact, and do not respond to unwanted attention. In addition, keep your money out of sight by using an undergarment money pouch, the kind that hangs around your neck and stays hidden under your shirt or inside your coat. Do not keep your money in outside pockets of backpacks, in coat pockets, or in fanny packs. And always walk with a companion at night.

Preparing for the Unexpected: Safety Training and Volunteer Support in Paraguay

The Peace Corps’ approach to safety is a five-pronged plan to help you stay safe during your two-year service and includes the following: information sharing, Volunteer training, site selection criteria, a detailed emergency action plan, and protocols for addressing safety and security incidents. Paraguay’s in-country safety program is outlined below.

The Peace Corps/Paraguay office will keep you informed of any issues that may impact your safety through information sharing. Regular updates will be provided in Volunteer newsletters and in memorandums from the country director. In the event of a critical situation or emergency, you will be contacted through the emergency communication network, which is tested periodically so that any problems can be resolved.

Volunteer training will include sessions to prepare you for specific safety and security issues in Paraguay. This training will prepare you to adopt a culturally appropriate lifestyle and exercise judgment that promotes safety and reduces risk in your home, at work, and while traveling. Safety training is offered throughout your two-year service and is integrated into language, cross-cultural, health, and other components of training, including Volunteer-led initiatives such as the Peer Support Network.

Certain site selection criteria are used to determine safe housing for Volunteers before their arrival. The Peace Corps staff works closely with host communities and counterpart agencies to help prepare them for a Volunteer’s arrival and to clarify expectations of their roles in supporting the Volunteer.

Each site is inspected before the Volunteer’s arrival to ensure placement in appropriate, safe, and secure housing and work sites. Site selection is based on a variety of factors, including relevant site history; access to medical, banking, and other essential services; availability of communications, transportation, and markets; housing options and living arrangements; and other Volunteer support needs.

You will also learn about Peace Corps/Paraguay’s detailed emergency action plan, which is implemented in the event of civil or political unrest or a natural disaster. When you arrive at your site, you will complete and submit a site locator form with your address, contact information, and a map to your house. If there is a security threat, you will gather with other Volunteers in Paraguay at predetermined locations until the situation is resolved or the Peace Corps decides to evacuate.

Finally, in order for the Peace Corps to be fully responsive to the needs of Volunteers, it is imperative that Volunteers immediately report any security incident to the Peace Corps medical officer or safety and security coordinator. Volunteers are also encouraged to speak with their project director or the country director about security concerns or possible threats to security. The Peace Corps has established protocols for addressing safety and security incidents in a timely and appropriate manner, and it collects and evaluates safety and security data to track trends and develop strategies to minimize risks to future Volunteers.